Hypothesis 9 intellectual property rights

Critics of agrifood biotechnology had success in caricaturing the first generation of products as instances of overweening corporate greed, and a large part of that success must be attributed to the fact that companies were quite obviously and undeniably busy trying to stake a number of new ownership claims in connection with biotech. These included fairly straightforward process patents that made news on the business page, but also patents on whole organisms, patents on sequences of genetic...

Ethics and control

The underlying (and ultimately practical) issue regarding rights autonomy is whether non-GM foods will be available in the future, and whether consumers will have the option of refusing GM foods and still maintain nutritionally complete diets. This leads to a final set of issue that affects the ethical acceptability of GMOs. This area of concern is essentially the matter of who controls the food system, which means in part, who controls the agenda regarding GM foods or agricultural...

Hypothesis 6 agrifood biotechnology was narrow nanotechnology is broad

Sandler and Kay's five hypotheses are framed under the presumption that consumer and activist reactions to GMOs were failures in communication. Either the developers of these technologies failed to adequately educate the public in the scientific principles and empirical findings that supported the development of agrifood biotechnology, or they failed to hear and understand a set of legitimate concerns that were being voiced by critics. Of course, it is entirely possible that both of these...

About the Authors

Bjornstad, Society-Technology Interactions Group, Environmental Sciences Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. His research centers on the economic policy analysis on topics dealing with science policy and energy environment and natural resources policy, applied microeconomic theory, natural resource valuation, and experimental economics. He received a Ph.D. in Economics from Syracuse University in 1973. Jeffrey Burkhardt, Professor of Agriculture and Natural...

Case of multiple translations

Basic research on hydrogen storage was carried out by Shell Global Solutions, a research unit within Shell of the Netherlands. H. Geerlings worked on this area. Applications of this research, in the form of public buses running on hydrogen, have been successfully launched in various cities in the Netherlands and abroad. The messages to various audiences that were necessary to research, to develop, and to implement this innovation with regulatory acceptances and with acceptance by citizens are...