Synthesis Extraction and Purification of Fullerenes

Sublimation Purification

Fullerene molecules are formed in the laboratory from carbon-rich vapors which can be obtained in a variety of ways, e.g., resistive heating of carbon rods in a vacuum, ac or dc plasma discharge between carbon electrodes in He gas, laser ablation of carbon electrodes in He gas, and oxidative combustion of benzene argon gas mixtures. Most methods for the production of large quantities of fullerenes simultaneously generate a mixture of stable fullerenes (C60, C70, ), impurity molecules such as...

Fullerene Purification Sublimation

Working Soxhlet Apparatus Animation

See Eq. (5.1) for the definition of S. Unless noted otherwise, the data refer to values at 295 K 5.30 . ''These data refer to values at 303 K 5.29 , powder is heated above the sublimation temperature of C60. At T 400 C, the sublimation rate for C60 in vacuum is favored by a factor of 20 over that of C70 5.26 , Therefore, since C70 is normally a factor of 7 less abundant in arc soot than C60, a reasonably pure molecular beam of C60 can be obtained. For example, if a Knudsen cell 5.28 containing...

Fullerene Chemistry and Electrochemistry

Fullerene chemistry has become a very active research field, largely because of the uniqueness of the C60 molecule 10.1 and the variety of fullerene derivatives that appear to be possible. The synthesis of crystalline M3C60 (M K, Rb, Cs) compounds by the chemical reduction of C60 with alkali metals led to the discovery in 1991 of moderately high temperature (Tc 20 K) superconductivity in these compounds 10.2 . Since that date, chemists have learned how to generate a diverse group of fullerene...