Lja

C2 absorption, 147-150, 154, 167, 168,

210, 785-788 C2 emission, 150, 153-154, 157-163, 168, 210, 228, 229, 231 C3 trimers, 786, 788 C20, 49, 69, 70, 95 C», 451 C50, 163 CMF36, 307 QoF«,, 307, 907 C62) 155

C70, 64, 66-69, 72, 73, 96-104, 112, 113, 118, 121, 122, 127, 131, 143, 144, 150, 155, 163, 197-202, 207, 390-395, 703, 705, 731, 732, 740-742, 746, 747, 751, 753, 871, 872, 874, 883, 891, 893-895, 901, 907

abundance, 64, 66 applications, 871, 872, 874

atomic sites, 67 band filling, 569

binding energy per C atom, 66, 199, 432 bond lengths, 67, 68, 199, 433 carrier localization, 563 catalytic properties, 894, 895 chemistry, 293, 297, 298, 300, 306 core level spectroscopy, 703, 705 D5h symmetry, 96-104 Debye temperature, 598 diamond nucleation application, 893 dielectric constant, 199, 538, 705 dielectric function, 537, 538, 705 doped, 145, 258, 262, 263, 395, 569-570,

580, 581, 587, 593, 594, 605, 608 dynamics of excited states, 483-487, 541 electrochemistry, 300, 301, 901 electron spectroscopy, 699, 702-705 electronic structure (see also Electronic structure), 418-419, 432-134, 730 enthalphy change, 598 EPR studies, 486, 569, 679-680, 753 equivalence transformation, 101 excited state lifetimes, 484 exciton state energies (see also Electronic structure), 484, 538, 539, 705 extraction, 111, 116 growth, 150, 151, 730 Hall effect, 580 high temperature phase, 201 intermolecular interaction, 539 inverse photoemission, 693, 706 ionization potential, 199 isolated pentagon rule, 64 lattice constant, 199, 262, 699, 700, 731 lattice modes, 390-395 lifetime of triplet state, 485-487 low temperature phase, 201 magnetic susceptibility, 740-742, 746, 751, 753

metal-coated, 53 modulus, 199 molar volume, 207 molecular alignment, 198-201, 258 molecular diameter, 67, 199 molecular solid, 539 non-linear optics, 544-547 NMR, 654, 655, 657-661

C70 (continued) optical limiting, 871, 872 optical properties, 464, 485-491, 498,

537-540, 544 phase transitions, 198-201, 207, 594, 598 pressure dependent resistivity, 586, 587 photoconductivity, 587, 593 photoemission, 693, 694, 696, 706, 718 polymer composites, 874 purification, 111, 127 Raman spectra, 207, 390-392, 397, 718 rhombohedral phases, 198-200, 206, 207 separations, 907

shape, 67, 96, 104, 655, 659, 679, 700, 714 size, 714

specific heat, 594, 595, 598 structure, 47, 64, 66-74, 197-203, 699, 700 sublimation, 199 surface binding, 710, 730 surface-enhanced Raman effect, 718 symmetry, 71, 96-104, 537, 541 synthesis, 110-113, 115 TDAE-C70 (see TDAE), 751 thermal conductivity, 605 thermopower, 581 transient absorption, 485, 486 transport properties, 569, 570 xerography application, 593 C74> 127

C76, 66, 67, 72-73, 122, 124, 143, 202-203, 452-453, 655, 693, 699-700, 703-706, 720, 731, 732 C7S, 67, 71-73, 122, 127, 143, 720, 731, 732 Cm, 69, 70, 72, 75, 76, 90, 101, 202-203, 452 Cg2, 67, 72, 202-203, 452^53, 693, 720, 731, 732

C84, 67, 71-73, 121, 143, 155, 202-203, 452-453, 693, 694, 699-700, 703, 705, 706, 720, 731, 732, 753 C140, 70, 72, 75, 76, 90, 772 higher mass fullerenes, 67, 70, 72, 73, 90, 102-105, 110, 112, 116, 128, 153-154, 202, 331, 390, 753 Cage structure, 1, 5, 6, 7, 8, 44-^6, 48-50, 60-65, 74, 75, 143, 158, 228, 294, 417, 419, 777, 860, 908 adamantane, 44, 45 buckminsterfullerene, 44 cage opening, 294, 710, 716, 729, 730, 893 carbon-free fullerenes, 50-52 cubane, 44

diamantane, 44, 45 dodecahedrane, 44, 46 metallo-carbohedrenes, 48-50 tetramantane, 44, 45 triamantane, 44, 45 twistane, 44, 46 Calcium (see also Alkaline earths), 447 Capacitance, 493, 506, 904 Carbide particle, 29-31, 782 Carbolites, 32-33

Carbon arc, 10, 21, 29, 30, 32, 110, 111-115, 131-134, 138, 155, 156, 761, 778, 779, 782, 786, 789-791, 850-853, 859, 860, 862

inert gas cooling, 21, 111-113, 115, 132, 778, 779, 782, 789, 850, 862 Carbon-carbon bonding (see Bonding) Carbon-carbon distance (see Bond lengths) Carbon materials, 11, 15-58 activated carbons, 34, 35, 895 aerogels, 34-36 all-carbon polymers, 46-48 amorphous carbon, 23, 32-34, 207, 212,

403, 765, 784, 851, 891 arc deposit, 779, 780, 781, 829, 833, 834,

837, 838, 850-852 cage hydrocarbons, 31, 44-46 carbynes, 16, 22

860, 895, 907 carbon clusters, 3-6, 153 carbon coated particles, 29-31, 761,

780-782, 790, 791, 829, 850, 862-863 carbon fibers, 16, 21-24, 763-765, 832, 854, 857, 911 activated, 34, 35 heat treatment, 765, 775, 782 mesophase pitch, 22, 23 polyacrylonitrile (PAN), 22, 23 precursors, 21 preferred orientation, 21 vapor growth, 22-24, 763, 765, 775, 779, 782, 783, 786, 791, 854, 857 carbon-free fullerenes, 34, 50-51 clusters, 5, 153 CVD diamond films, 41-43 density, 17, 34, 35, 40 diamond (see Diamond) disordered carbons, 18, 19, 24, 25, 28, 30, 35, 830, 850

graphite (see Graphite)

graphite-related materials, 15, 851

hard carbons, 24, 25

hexagonal diamond, 40

HOPG (see Highly oriented pyrolytic graphite) intercalation compounds (see

Intercalation) interplanar distance, 17-19 isotropic pitch, 34 kish graphite, 20 linear chain, 4 liquid carbon, 16, 25 metal-coated fullerenes, 51-54 metallo-carbohedrenes (Met-Cars), 48-50 nanocapsules, 30, 31 nanoparticles, 30, 825 polygonal particles, 861 porous carbons, 24, 25, 34-35 precursors, 21, 34, 46, 47 pyrolytic carbon (see also Pyrolytic carbon), 20, 27, 29-31, 763, 832 shock-quenched phases, 16, 31 whiskers, 21, 765, 783 Carbon nanocones, 772, 774, 777-778, 779, 783

cone angle, 777, 778 opening angle, 777-779 Carbon nanotubes (see also Nanotubes), 1, 13, 17, 21, 24, 29, 65, 76, 80, 90, 96, 104, 111, 144, 145, 147, 168, 272, 712, 740-742, 756-864, 903-904, 911 Aharonov-Bohm effect (h || T), 818, 819, 823

alignment, 785, 857 applications, 814, 817, 903-904 interconnect, 903, 904 junction, 903, 904 logic circuit, 903 magnetic device, 903 memory, 903, 904 optical device, 903 switching, 904 armchair, 757-761, 769, 786, 788, 791, 792, 794, 795-797, 800-803, 804-805, 806, 807, 809, 810, 812, 814, 815, 841, 842, 843-844, 845-847, 849, 856 edge, 786 arrays, 815-817, 818, 863, 864

aspect ratio, 760, 763-765, 786, 795, 903 bamboo structure, 782, 783 band gap, 803, 807, 808, 809, 811-813, 816, 825, 836 diameter dependence, 808, 827 barrelenes, 764

basic ID symmetry operations, 758 basic modulus, 765 bending, 783, 784

bundles, 761, 763-767, 780, 785, 815, 818, 825, 827, 828, 830, 833, 834, 837, 838, 853, 858 microbundle, 780, 829 caps (see also Terminations), 756-758, 760, 761, 769-776, 777, 782-789, 795,

800, 815, 842, 857, 858 carrier density (see Carrier density) chiral angle, 111, 757-760, 762, 767, 768,

811, 819, 825, 828, 838, 841, 843, 844, 846, 849, 854-856, 858, 864, 903

chiral tubes, 96, 757-760, 768-771,

801, 803, 809-814, 825, 841, 844-846, 848-849, 864, 903

794, 801, 803, 809, 816, 841 circumferential direction, 797, 801,

803-807, 812, 815, 818, 823 closed-end, 757, 771, 772, 782, 785, 789 coefficient of thermal expansion, 857 cohesive energy, 815 composite, 782 conductance, 826 cones (see Carbon nanocones) curvature, 765, 774, 775, 784, 788, 803,

812, 813, 815, 834, 836, 838, 840, 841, 855, 856, 858

cylindrical shape, 756 defects, 803, 807, 815, 857 ID density of states, 762, 776, 777, 806, 807, 808, 810, 818, 825, 826, 829, 863, 864

diameter, 757, 758, 761, 765, 767, 768, 769-770, 772, 773, 775-777, 783, 784, 790, 793, 794, 795, 800, 802, 809, 811-814, 816, 819-822, 825-828, 830 831, 833, 834, 836, 838, 841, 842, 844-850, 853, 854, 856, 864, 903

Carbon nanotubes (continued)

diameter distribution, 769-770, 833, 853, 854

minimum diameter, 769, 784, 795, 813, 816, 823 dimerization, 858 diselination, 773, 774 doping, 624, 803, 807, 817, 818, 863 elastic properties (see also Elastic properties), 757, 762, 813, 814, 854-858

electron energy loss spectroscopy (see also

EELS), 838-839 electronic properties, 795, 904 electronic structure (see also Electronic structure), 756, 761, 762, 792, 802-839, 855 ellipsometry, 785 ESR, 825, 836, 837 faceted, 775 Fermi energy, 823 Fermi function, 836

filled nanotubes, 784, 817, 818, 858-860, 903, 904 carbides, 859, 860 metals, 859, 860 nanocapillarity, 858, 859 nanowires, 859 oxides, 859, 860 oxygen-enhanced, 858 surface tension, 858 tube opening, 858, 859 wetting, 858 fullerene impurities, 850 fullerene-tubule connection, 756, 757-761,

763, 775-777, 784, 815, 856 g-factors, 836-837 geometry, 757, 849, 904 group theory considerations, 791-802 growth mechanism, 756, 764, 765, 775, 782, 785-791 active sites, 785

catalysts, 782, 784, 786, 790, 791 dimer addition, 782, 785-788 epitaxial, 786 nucleation, 785, 790 open tube, 768, 788 Stone-Wales, 786 highest common divisor, 791, 792, 793, 794, 798-801, 810, 811, 844

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