Chapter

Vibrational Modes 329

11.1. Overview of Mode Classifications 329

11.2. Experimental Techniques 331

11.3. C60 Intramolecular Modes 332

11.3.1. The Role of Symmetry and Theoretical Models 332

11.3.2. Theoretical Crystal Field Perturbation of the Intramolecular Modes of C60 339

11.3.3. Isotope Effects in the Vibrational and Rotational Spectra of C60 Molecules 341

11.4. Intermolecular Modes 347

11.5. Experimental Results on C60 Solids and Films 355

11.5.1. Raman-Active Modes 355

11.5.2. Infrared-Active Modes 356

11.5.3. Higher-Order Raman Modes in C60 358

11.5.4. Higher-Order Infrared Modes in C60 361

11.5.5. Isotope Effects in the Raman Spectra 364

11.5.6. Silent Intramolecular Modes in C60 364

11.5.7. Luminescence Studies of Vibrations in C60 366

11.5.8. Neutron Scattering 367

11.5.9. HREELS Study of Vibrational Modes 369

11.5.10. Vibrational Modes as a Probe of Phase Transitions . . . 370

11.5.11. Vibrational States Associated with Excited Electronic States 375

11.6. Vibrational Modes in Doped Fullerene Solids 376

11.6.1. Doping Dependence of Raman-Active Modes 377

11.6.2. Doping Dependence of the F,„-Derived Intramolecular

Modes 382

11.6.3. Other Doping-Dependent Intramolecular Effects 388

11.6.4. Doping-Dependent Intermolecular Effects 388

11.7. Vibrational Spectra for C70 and Higher Fullerenes 390

11.7.1. Intramolecular Vibrational Spectra for Cj0 391

11.7.2. Intermolecular Vibrational Spectra for Cyo 392

11.7.3. Vibrational Modes in Doped Q, Solids 394

11.8. Vibrational Spectra for Phototransformed Fullerenes 397

11.9. Vibrational Spectra for C60 under Pressure 402

11.10. Vibrational Spectra of Other Fullerene-Related Materials 406 References 406

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