Chapter

C^-Related Tubules and Spherules 756

19.1. Relation between Tubules and Fullerenes 757

19.2. Experimental Observation of Carbon Nanotubes 761

19.2.1. Observation of Multiwall Carbon Nanotubes 761

19.2.2. Observation of Single-Wall Carbon Nanotubes 765

19.2.3. Tubule Caps and Chirality 769

19.2.4. Carbon Nanocones Ill

19.2.5. Nanotube Synthesis 778

19.2.6. Alignment of Nanotubes 785

19.3. Growth Mechanism 785

19.4. Symmetry Properties of Carbon Nanotubes 791

19.4.1. Specification of Lattice Vectors in Real Space 791

19.4.2. Symmetry for Symmorphic Carbon Tubules 795

19.4.3. Symmetry for Nonsymmorphic Carbon Tubules 797

19.4.4. Reciprocal Lattice Vectors 800

19.5. Electronic Structure: Theoretical Predictions 802

19.5.1. Single-Wall Symmorphic Tubules 803

19.5.2. Single-Wall Nonsymmorphic Chiral Tubules 809

19.5.3. Multiwall Nanotubes and Arrays 814

19.5.4. ID Electronic Structure in a Magnetic Field 818

19.6. Electronic Structure: Experimental Results 825

19.6.1. Scanning Tunneling Spectroscopy Studies 825

19.6.2. Transport Measurements 827

19.6.3. Magnetoresistance Studies 829

19.6.4. Magnetic Susceptibility Studies 833

19.6.5. Electron Energy Loss Spectroscopy Studies 838

19.7. Phonon Modes in Carbon Nanotubes 839

19.7.1. Phonon Dispersion Relations 840

19.7.2. Calculated Raman- and Infrared-Active Modes 845

19.7.3. Experiments on Vibrational Spectra of Carbon Nanotubes 850

19.8. Elastic Properties 854

19.9. Filled Nanotubes 858

19.10. Onion-Like Graphitic Particles 860

19.11. Possible Superconductivity in C60-Related Tubules 863

References 864

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