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multiwall, 756, 761-765, 768, 773-775, 784, 789, 790, 803, 811, 814-818, 826, 829, 845, 850 nesting of tubules, 760, 816, 858 open-end, 757, 771, 784-786, 788-790 oxidation resistance, 857 oxygen burning technique, 781, 784, 825, 859

Peierls distortion (see Electronic structure) phonons (see also Phonons), 839-854 projection mapping (see also Projection mapping), 76, 77, 770-772 quantum effects, 850 quasi ID hollow wires, 903, 904 Raman spectra (see Raman spectroscopy) reciprocal lattice vector, 800-802, 804, 841 ID reciprocal space unit cell, 801-805, 841, 848

resistivity (see Transport properties) screw axis, 757, 773, 775 scroll morphology, 765 semiconducting, 759, 802, 809, 811-814,

817, 820-822, 825-827, 829, 834 single wall, 29, 756-758, 761, 765-769, 772, 773, 775, 782, 784, 790, 802, 803-814, 816, 825, 850, 856-858, 863 stability, 784, 815

STM (see Scanning tunneling microscopy) structure, 815

superconductivity, 757, 818, 858, 863-864

symmetry (see also Point groups, Space groups), 813, 823, 840, 849 synthesis, 756, 761, 763, 778-784 carbon arc, 761, 764, 765, 778, 779, 782,

786, 789-791, 850-853, 859 conditions, 778, 790 electric field, 790 flames, 778

He pressure, 779, 788-790

ion bombardment, 778, 783

metal-packed anodes, 859

purification, 781, 857

separation, 780, 857

temperature, 779, 782, 783, 788-790

transition metal-catalyzed, 763, 766, 769,

770, 782, 790, 791, 851-853, 859 vapor growth, 762, 763, 778, 779, 782, 783

tensile strength, 765, 775 terminations bill-like, 772, 774 polyhedral, 771, 772 semitoroidal, 772, 774, 775, 788 thermal conductivity, 857 transition junction, 774 ID translation vector, 757, 791, 792, 793,

794, 797, 800, 803, 810, 841 transmission electron microscopy (see TEM)

transport measurements (see Transport properties) tubule axis, 760, 762, 765, 775-777, 783, 785, 786, 794, 797, 802, 804, 810, 815, 816, 818-824, 830, 831, 833-838, 841, 842, 845, 863 turbostratic stacking, 760, 761, 815, 829, 862

two coaxial tubules, 814-815, 816 ID unit cell, 757, 759, 791-792, 793, 794,

799-804, 823, 841-845, 848 wave vector, 802-807, 809-812, 823, 841, 863

allowed, 804, 807, 812 crossing point, 805-807, 812 zigzag, 757-760, 773, 775-777, 786, 788, 791-793, 795-797, 800-804, 805-806, 807-810, 812, 814, 824, 827, 841, 844, 845, 846, 847, 849, 856 edge, 786 zone folding (see Zone folding)

Carbon onion, 27, 50, 74, 144, 756, 757, 765, 784, 815, 860-863 by electron beam irradiation, 860, 861 by laser melting, 860 by shock waves, 860 concentric stacking, 756, 757, 765, 860 diameter, 860

double layer Ca)@C24(1, 860, 862 filled onions, 862 from nanodiamonds, 860 fullerene-onion connection, 860, 862 hollow core, 860, 861 inner diameter, 860 interlayer separation, 815, 862 internal oscillations, 862 multilayer, 74, 756, 757, 765, 860 purification, 862

spherical shells, 756, 757, 765, 860 stabilization energy, 862 strain energy, 860 synthesis, 862 Carbynes, 16, 31-32 Carcinogens, 115, 138

Carrier density, 238, 440, 443, 532, 560, 566, 573, 574, 580, 581, 583-585, 588-594, 602-604, 607, 608, 683 carbon nanotubes, 829, 838 on surface, 574 Carrier generation, 588-591 Carrier localization (see also Localized charge), 51, 456, 540, 563, 565, 566, 592, 608, 621, 676, 739, 747, 749, 831, 838 Carrier mobility, 589, 882, 883, 888, 904 Carrier recombination, 238, 480, 488, 588, 589, 591-593, 888, 897 positron, 238 Carrier scattering, 556, 564, 565, 582 by boundaries, 632 by defects, 561 by impurities, 561

by merohedral disorder, 245, 561, 565, 566 by phonons, 565, 573, 574 mechanism, 557, 561 Carrier sign, 581, 608 Carrier trapping, 541, 588, 589 Carrier velocity, 574, 575 Catalytic agent (see also Chemical reactions), 41, 766, 782, 784, 786, 790, 850-852, 894-896, 898, 910, 911 Cathode (see Electrode)

Cations (see also Endohedral fullerenes), 154-164, 236, 256, 303, 426, 428-429, 702, 744, 745, 896, 897 C+, 154-164, 256, 303, 304, 306, 426, 674 426, 429

426, 428, 429, 744, 748 metal, 226, 241, 243, 247, 250, 252,

254-256, 330, 331, 376, 386 (NH3)4Na, 621 radical, 314 Cavity (see Voids) Cementite (FeC3), 29-30, 790, 863 Character table (see Group theory) Charge density wave (CDW), 646, 647 Charge distribution, 694, 725 Charge generation, 533, 534, 556, 557 Charge transfer, 37-39, 365, 442, 443, 447, 449-451, 491, 506, 507, 863 adsorbed layers, 697, 702, 706, 717-722,

724-726, 728 battery (see also Batteries), 300, 304, 423, 899

261, 262, 288, 330, 405, 570, 572, 643, 695, 697, 718, 730, 739, 748, 749 alkali metal doped Q,, 226, 227, 235, 236, 238-253, 376, 378-380, 382, 384, 442, 443, 518, 520, 557, 560, 563, 580, 619, 623, 663, 664 alkali metal doped C,0, 262-263, 569-570

alkaline earth doped C^, 253-256, 567-568, 623 electrolytic, 512

endohedral, 230-233, 435, 672, 733, 744, 745

exciton, 491, 500, 504, 505, 520, 691 photo-induced, 534-536, 871, 873-875, 881 polymers, 533-537, 870, 871, 873-876, 881, 897, 907

salts, 271, 300, 316, 319, 320, 907, 910 substitutional doping, 233-234 Charge transfer complex, 316, 319, 907, 910 Charged phonons (see IR spectrum) Chemical reactions, 179, 292-328 addition reactions, 296, 315 alkoxylation, 304

alkylation, 187, 296, 297, 299, 304-306,

315, 895 amination, 297, 306

Birch reaction, 304, 305, 899 bond cleavage, 894, 895 bridging, 192, 297, 307-312 catalytic, 894-896, 898, 899 cycloaddition, 187, 297, 311, 312-314 complexation, 318, 319 dehydrogenation, 894, 895, 898, 900 dispersive agent, 896 electrochemical (see Electrochemistry) gas phase, 304

general characteristics, 180, 294-297 halogenation, 190, 296, 297, 306-307 high pressure, 304

hydrogenation, 187, 296, 297, 299, 304,

306, 315, 894-896, 898-900 irreversible, 300, 898 oxidation, 186, 189, 297, 298, 300, 303,

304, 895 phenylation, 307 polymerization, 320-325, 895 reactions with free radicals, 191, 297,

315-316, 895 redox, 300

reduction, 182, 183, 297-304 reversible, 898

scission reactions, 296, 894, 895 selectivity, 895 stress catalyzed, 858

substitution reactions, 186, 305, 307, 314 sulfur extraction, 895 Chemical stability (see also Stability), 6, 153,

155-156, 905 Chemical vapor deposition (CVD), 42-44, 893

Chemisorption, 721 Chemotactic potency, 897 Chiral (see also Carbon nanotubes) fullerenes, 96, 104, 122, 124, 656 structure of C-,6, 655 Chromatography, 72, 117,120-125, 128, 135-137, 229, 272, 293, 537, 889, 907, 909, 911 fullerene residue, 907 liquid, 72, 272, 537

mobile phases, 121, 122, 124, 125, 907 retention time, 122, 907 stationary phase, 121, 122, 128, 907 Classification of doped fullerenes, 137, 224, 225

Clathrates, 39, 224, 225, 227, 236-237, 257, 271, 288-289, 297, 303, 316, 317 C«)C,H6Br2, 288 C6OC4H100, 288

C«|H2, 288 C«,02, 236, 288 C^Sg, 236, 288 Cm-H-pentane, 236, 289 C6O(S8)2CS2, 236, 237, 289 C70-based, 288, 289 Clausius-Clapeyron equation, 600 Clausius-Mossotti relation (see Optical properties) Clusters, 3, 37, 44-46, 48-54 CO, 313

Coatings, 904-905, 909, 910

for STM tips, 904, 905 Coaxial tubules (see also Carbon nanotubes),

Coherence (see also Superconductivity) length, 564, 626, 627, 632, 633 peak, 636, 684 Cohesive energy, 63, 234, 438, 440, 443, 560, 716, 720, 732, 815 intermolecular, 63, 172, 438, 440, 443, 716, 815

intramolecular, 149, 150, 152, 153, 415 Collisions with fullerenes, 159-165 energy transfer, 163 ions, 159, 161 molecules, 160, 161 ions, 159, 161 surfaces, 163-165 Columnar growth, 779

Combination modes (see IR, Raman spectra) Compatibility relations (see Group theory) Composites Copolymer, 302, 304, 532-537, 871, 873-880, 881-883, 885-888, 896, 897, 899, 907-911 metal-graphite, 131-135, 782, 862, 863 nanotube-polymer, 785, 857 Compressibility, 65, 171, 172, 175, 203-204,

402, 602, 641, 642 Concave surface, 9, 65, 145 Concentric layers, 27, 54, 756, 765, 860, 862 Conductivity (see Transport properties) Convex surface, 65, 145

Corannulene (see also Annulene structure),

61, 62, 148-150, 167 Core level spectroscopy, 694, 695, 697, 698, 703-704, 705, 706, 708, 711, 719 C 1 s binding energy, 694, 697, 698, 703, 705, 708

Correlation energy, 421, 456, 712 Corrugation potential, 715 Cost considerations, 908, 911 Coulomb interaction (see also Electronic structure), 197, 244, 252, 254, 255, 369, 384, 395, 437, 438, 449, 451, 453-455, 457, 472, 504, 523, 561, 580, 625, 645-647, 689, 710, 711 Coverage, 276, 279, 280, 697, 698 Langmuir, 892

monolayer, 212, 697, 698, 701, 702, 706, 710, 711, 713, 715, 717-719, 721, 723-727, 730, 732, 733, 891-893, 896, 897, 902, 905 multilayer, 212, 697, 698, 701, 702, 713, 715, 717, 721, 724, 726, 727, 730, 732, 891, 892, 896, 897, 902, 905 submonolayer, 698, 715-717, 728, 729, 732, 902

two layer (bilayers), 697, 698, 724, 725, 727, 896, 897 Cross-linking (see also Polymerization), 207, 210, 211, 213, 247, 398, 400, 401, 508, 889

Crystal growth (see also Single crystal), 148, 271, 272-274 CM, 272-275

Cvo, 273

crystallite dimension, 712 Crystal structure alkali metal doped C60, 146, 238-253, 285, 380

alkaline earth doped Cm, 151, 253-256, 285

ambient CM structure, 111 Cm, 111, 171-197, 689 OA, 257 Qol,,, 256, 257 QA 256, 308 C6O(S8)2CS2, 236 Qo-n-pentane, 237 C6IH2, 259 C70, 203-208 C7QI2» 258

Crystal structure (continued) effect of pressure, 125, 203-208 effect of temperature, 126, 208-209 halogen doped phases, 152 polymerized Cm, 126 photopolymerized C70 films, 128 quenched state of N^C«,, 380, 381, 531,

532, 664 rare earth R, CM, 256 TDAE-Qo, 259-261, 749 Cs,C go (see Alkali metal fullerides) Cu surfaces (see Substrates) "Cup-shaped" molecules, 317-319 Curie paramagnetism, 739, 740, 745-747, 751 Curie temperature, 260, 669 Curie-Weiss temperature, 748 Curie-Weiss paramagnetism, 681, 745-748, 750, 751

convex, 145 Cyanopolyynes, 3

Cycloaddition, 211, 212, 215, 248, 311, 312-314

322-324, 508 "4+2", 312-313 Cyclopentadiene, 313-315 Cyclopentadienyl radical, 298, 315 Cyclovoltammetry, 228, 300-303, 325, 899, 901

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