Although the study of fullerenes and carbon nanotubes has recently undergone rapid development and still remains a fast moving research field, most of the fundamental concepts underlying this field are now becoming clearly defined. This is, therefore, an appropriate time to write a book providing a comprehensive review of the current status of this field. This review was initiated by a tutorial given for the fall 1992 meeting of the Materials Research Society. The tutorial proved to be so popular that it was repeated for the spring 1993 meeting, and resulted in several review articles. A special topics physics course was also taught at MIT in the fall of 1994 using the subject matter of this book.
Carbon is a remarkable element showing a variety of stable forms ranging from 3D semiconducting diamond to 2D semimetallic graphite to ID conducting and semiconducting carbon nanotubes to OD fullerenes, which show many interesting properties. Since much of the carbon phase diagram remains largely unexplored, it is expected that new forms of carbon remain to be discovered. To provide a context for the newly discovered fullerenes and carbon nanotubes, a brief review of carbon-based materials is provided at the beginning of this volume. This is followed by a comprehensive and pedagogical review of the field of fullerene and carbon nanotube research.
The structure and properties of fullerenes are reviewed, emphasizing their behavior as molecular solids. The structure and property modifications produced by doping are summarized, including modification to the electronic structure, lattice modes, transport, and optical properties. Particular emphasis is given to the alkali metal-doped fullerenes because they have been studied most extensively, due to their importance as superconductors. A review of the structure and properties of carbon nanotubes is also given, including a model for their one-dimensional electronic band structure. Potential applications for fullerene-based materials are suggested.
The authors acknowledge fruitful discussions with Professors M. A. Duncan, M. Endo, M. Fujita, J. P. Issi, R. A. Jishi, R. Saito, K. R. Subbaswamy, R. Taylor, D. R. M. Walton, J. H. Weaver, Drs. X. X. Bi, P. Briihwiler, J. C. Charlier, D. Eastwood, M. Golden, M. Grabow, A. V. Hamza, A. Hebard, J. Heremans, A. R. Kortan, R. Ochoa, B. Pevzner, and A. M. Rao. Ms. Kathie Sauer designed the cover of the book and contributed to the artwork. Ms. Laura Doughty has been indispensable in keeping the project organized and proceeding on schedule. The MIT authors gratefully acknowledge support from NSF grant DMR-92-01878 and from AFOSR grant F49620-93-1-0160. The work at UK was supported in part by NSF grant EH4-91-08764.
M. S. Dresselhaus, Cambridge, Massachusetts G. Dresselhaus, Cambridge, Massachusetts P. C. Eklund, Lexington, Kentucky
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