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Vacuum level, 717, 720 Valence band, 19, 33, 41, 432, 437, 441, 442, 449, 451, 501, 503, 504, 518, 521, 693, 711, 719, 804-807, 809, 810, 817, 829 carbon nanotubes, 719, 804-807, 809, 810, 817, 829

van der Waals interaction, 37, 175, 197, 203, 210, 225, 227, 242, 251, 277, 281, 316, 318, 320, 338, 398, 451, 713, 714, 857, 862, 888 bond, 888, 902, 905 force, 37, 236, 242, 714, 857 radius, 250 van Hove singularity, 863 Vapor deposition (see also Chemical vapor deposition), 41, 778, 893 Vapor grown carbon fibers (VGCF) (see also Carbon materials), 22-24, 763, 765, 775, 779, 782, 783, 786, 791, 854, 857 Vapor growth method CM and C70, 271, 272-274 carbon nanotubes, 763, 782, 788, 789 thin films (see Film growth) Vapor phase, 4, 21, 129, 133, 161, 173, 763, 782, 788

Vapor pressure, 36, 129-131, 436, 716, 889 temperature dependence, 129-131, 716 Vapor transport, 129, 272, 273, 277 Vaporization, 36, 129, 131 Variable angle spectroscopic ellipsometry

(VASE), 493, 538, 539 Variable-range hopping (see ako Quantum transport), 25, 165, 586, 592 Velocity of sound, 17, 172, 185, 190, 192,

575, 597, 602 Vertices, 60, 64, 80, 81, 148 Vibrational modes, 329-406, 437, 493, 556, 574, 699, 706, 872 calculations, 354, 361, 391, 393, 394 ab initio, 338, 361

Vibrational modes (continued) Born-von Karman model, 349 force constant model, 338, 361, 393, 394 point charge model, 352, 353 Qo intermolecular modes, 183, 184,

329-331, 347-355, 367, 376, 476, 573, 594, 595, 597, 607, 638 acoustic, 329, 330, 348, 351, 375 crystal field effects, 178 density of states, 330, 331 dispersion relations, 348-354 doping dependence, 388-390 doping-induced mode broadening, 388 doping-induced mode shifts, 388 T-point, 348-353

librations, 108, 183, 189, 194, 329-331, 340, 346, 347-354, 375, 388, 389, 574, 594, 595, 598, 638 metal-Cj,, vibrations, 330, 331, 376 optic modes, 329, 330, 352, 375 symmetry, 175, 178, 181, 183, 332-339,

349, 352, 354 temperature dependence, 388, 389 translational modes, 348-350, 352-354 Cal intramolecular modes, 183, 184, 330, 332-347, 355-375, 465, 475, 478, 482, 498, 530, 573, 594, 595, 607, 638, 644 average phonon frequency, 577, 578 degrees of freedom, 333, 335 doping-induced mode shifts, 726 dynamical matrix, 335, 341, 391 eigenvectors, 332-335 gas phase, 338

high frequency, 574, 578, 645 isotope effects, 341-347, 359, 639, 641 low frequency, 574, 578, 598, 645 mode degeneracies, 333, 498 mode frequencies, 334, 338, 339, 357, 359-361, 392-394, 466, 481, 483, 493, 496, 504, 519, 565, 595, 644 phase transitions, 215 radial motion, 330, 331, 333 silent modes, 90, 332, 334, 359, 363,

365-367, 369, 699, 706 solid state effects, 332, 338, 339-341, 644

solution phase, 338 symmetry considerations, 86-90,

97-104, 183-184, 332-339, 366 tangential frequencies, 334

tangential motion, 330, 331, 333, 335 vibration-rotation spectra, 341-347 C70 intermolecular modes, 390, 393-395 C70 intramolecular modes, 390-394 degrees of freedom, 86, 355, 390, 392, 507, 594, 595, 619, 843-845 intermolecular, 359, 594, 597, 598, 619 intramolecular, 594 rotational, 350, 594, 597, 712, 720 doped Qo, 375-390, 519, 574-580 Hg mode-electron coupling, 577 mode shifts, 376-388 doped C70, 393-395 Einstein modes, 595 energy bandwidth, 413, 574, 648 experimental techniques, 331-332 higher mass fullerenes, 215 mode classifications, 200, 329-332 pressure dependence, 402-404 TDAE-Qo, 404-406, 749 TDAE-C70, 404-406 unit conversion, 331 Vibronic states (see Electronic structure) Virus, 9, 11, 12, 309 Viscosity, 323 Voids, 240, 241

Voltammogram (see Electrochemistry) Volume of molecule, 68 Volume of unit cell, 248, 250 Volume expansion, 172, 238, 259, 600, 601, 621

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