Dementia Homeopathic Cure
There is currently no cure for Alzheimer's disease, and its ultimate cause is still unknown. The disease affects millions of people around the world. Experts predict that this figure is expected to rise dramatically as the population, especially in developed countries, ages. Genetic factors are known to be important in causing the disease and dominant mutations in different genes have been identified that account for both early-onset and late-onset Alzheimer's. For a number of years, researchers have been working on alleviating neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's or Parkinson's disease through gene therapy. In this type of treatment, a gene's DNA is delivered to the neurons in individual cells, allowing them to produce their own therapeutic proteins. Gene therapy typically aims to supplement a defective mutant allele (the location of DNA codings on a chromosome) with a functional one. Currently, the most common carrier vehicles to deliver the therapeutic genes to the...
Beyond the implications of biology for the nano world, in the next decade, the Human Genome Project will teach us more about humans than our total knowledge to this point. The development of new technologies (largely a function of physics and mathematics) will increase our understanding of the human brain in ways previously unimaginable. From Alzheimer's to Parkinson's to schizophrenia, there will be virtually no aspect of our understanding of the human brain and nervous system that cannot be transformed in the next two decades.
Brain tumors are traditionally classified by their cell types. For example, gliomas (neuroglial tumors) arise from cells derived from the primitive neuroepithelium, while meningiomas arise from arachnoid cap cells 36 . Symptoms of a brain tumor can include headaches (resulting from compression and increased ICP), seizures, cognitive or personality changes, eye movement abnormalities, nausea or vomiting, speech disturbances, and memory loss. Primary malignant brain tumors grow rapidly and destroy normal brain tissue, yet seldom metastasize (spread to other tissues in the body). In contrast, metastatic secondary brain tumors (cancer that spreads from other parts of the body to the brain) occur at some point in 10-15 of persons with cancer and are the most common type of brain tumor 26 .
Major pharmaceutical companies are exploring the use of fullerenes in drugs to control the neurological damage of such diseases as Alzheimer's disease and Lou Gehrig's disease (ALS). Companies are also testing the use of fullerenes in drugs for atherosclerosis and for use in antiviral agents.
On the other hand, the construction and structural analyses of aggregates caused by -structures are also performed from the viewpoint of protein chemistry 104-108 . For example, prion proteins from patients with Alzheimer's disease or Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE) form a different fiber-like aggregate 109-111 than prion proteins from a healthy body, and these proteins include -structure 112-114 .
Another emerging concern with respect to nanoparticles is their potential to interfere with the way in which proteins fold into their final shape. This is termed a 'chaperone' effect. Throughout evolution, as we have evolved macro-molecules such as proteins, we have also co-evolved chaperone molecules whose purpose is to 'assist' in the correct folding of polypeptide chains into the final three-dimensional configuration required for a protein. This is important because, in the brain, there are some diseases associated with protein misfolding, such as BSE (so-called 'mad cow' disease) and Alzheimer's disease. Billsten et al (1997) showed that 9nm silica particles could alter the configuration of the enzyme human carbonic anhydrase II. Akiyoshe et al (1999) have demonstrated a chaperone-like activity of nanoparticles with the beneficial effect of facilitating the thermal stabilization with refolding of carbonic anhydrase B. Ishii et al (2003) have shown that semiconductor nanoparticles...
The small and uniform dimensions of the nanotubes produce some interesting applications. With extremely small sizes, high conductivity, high mechanical strength and flexibility (ability to easily bend elastically), nanotubes may ultimately become indispensable in their use as nanoprobes. One could think of such probes as being used in a variety of applications, such as high resolution imaging, nano-lithography, nanoelectrodes, drug delivery, sensors and field emitters. The possibility of nanotube-based field emitting devices has been already discussed (see Sect. 1). Use of a single MWNT attached to the end of a scanning probe microscope tip for imaging has already been demonstrated (Fig. 12) 104 . Since MWNT tips are conducting, they can be used in STM, AFM instruments as well as other scanning probe instruments, such as an electrostatic force microscope. The advantage of the nanotube tip is its slenderness and the possibility to image features (such as very small, deep surface...
Proteins can be denatured and renatured repeatedly that is, they can be unfolded and refolded back to their natural configuration. Diseases such as Alzheimer's disease, cystic fibrosis, mad cow disease, an inherited form of emphysema, and even many cancers are believed to result from protein misfolding.
Defects related to microtubules are specifically linked to several human diseases. One example is immotile cilia syndrome (Afzelius, 1979) which is caused by altered dynein and results in an inability to expel secretions from the lungs, leading to recurrent bacterial infections. Another is developmental disability in infants which is caused by abnormal MT function induced by defective MAPs (Purpura, 1982). The cytoskeleton participates in the effects of various diseases (malignancy, Alzheimer's disease, viral infections), drugs, toxins and the body's response to disease. No agents are known to selectively disrupt intermediate filaments (although 2,5 hexane dione may act in this way). In intact cells, vanadate combined with drugs that disassemble microtubules cause vimentin type intermediate filaments to collapse around the nucleus. A toxin known as beta, beta prime iminodiproprionitrile (IDPN) disrupts microtubule neurofilament organization in axons, which results in colocalization of...
Metal complexation, and this protein deformation may cause Parkinson disease and Alzheimer disease. Fabrication of the histidine-rich peptide involved four steps. First, fe(N-a-amido-glycylglycine)-1,7-heptane dicarboxylate molecules (10 mM) were self-assembled into NWs in a pH 5.5 citric acid NaOH solution. Such NWs incorporate binding sites that have high affinity to biological molecules such as DNAs and proteins. Second, a histidine-rich peptide with the sequence A-H-H-A-H-H-A-A-D was immobilized on the heptane dicarboxylate NWs at the binding sites. Third, the histidine-rich peptide NWs were mixed with a ClAuPMe3 solution and incubated for 5 d to allow complete immobilization of Au ions. Finally, a reducing agent, NaBH4, was added to produce Au nanocrystals. By using this method, monodispersed Au nano-crystals were uniformly coated on the histidine peptide NWs with high-density coverage, and the crystalline phases of the Au nanocrystals were observed with TEM.
In pharmacology, two adamantane derivatives, Amantadine (1-adaman-taneamine hydrochloride) and Rimantadine (a-methyl-1-adamantane methylamine hydrochloride) have been well known because of their antiviral activity (Figure 3.5). The main indication of these drugs is prophylaxis and treatment of influenza A viral infections. They are also used in the treatment of Parkinsonism and inhibition of hepatitis C virus (HCV) 27 . Memantine (1-amino-3,5-dimethyladamantane) has been reported effective in slowing the progression of Alzheimer's disease 27 .
I am 58 and I am already thinking about Alzheimer's disease and cancer. The fact that George Harrison has died and was my age makes mortality much more vivid. So, I have a vested interest in accelerating the rate of discovery and the application of that discovery. The largest single voting block is baby boomers, and they would all understand that argument. They may not understand plasma physics or the highest level of the human genome project. But they can surely understand the alternative between having Alzheimer's and not having it. If you don't want Alzheimer's, you had better invest a lot more, not just in the National Institutes of Health (NIH) but also at the National Science Foundation (NSF) and a variety of other places, because the underlying core intellectual disciplines that make NIH possible all occur outside NIH. And most of the technology that NIH uses occurs outside of NIH. The argument has to be made by someone. If the scientific community refuses to make it, then you...
Key Words Amyloid fibril formation protein folding transthyretin lysozyme immunoglobulin Alzheimer disease prions. Sixteen different amyloidogenic proteins have been identified to form cross-P fibril components owing to misfolding. They result in different clinical syndromes (1,2). The most familiar include Alzheimer disease and transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs), prion diseases such as bovine spongiform encephalopathy or mad cow disease (consumption of tainted meat causes Creutzfeldt-Jacob disease in humans in cows it is called mad cow disease). Molecular chaperones such as chaperonins that include heat-shock proteins, groEL, hsp60 family, and the hsp90 family are proteins that help in the proper assembly of proteins while folding to attain the native state. The excess unfolded proteins and misfolded proteins are removed by proteolytic degradation. This is the quality control mechanism. The amyloid fibrils that are formed overcome all the chaperone-mediated folding and...
The new advances in biotechnology, genetic engineering, genomics, proteomics, and medicine will depend on how well we master nanotechnology in the coming decades. Nanotechnology could provide the tools to study how the tens of thousands of proteins in a cell (the so-called proteome) work together in networks to orchestrate the chemistry of life. Specific genes and proteins have been linked to numerous diseases and disorders, including breast cancer, muscle disease, deafness, and blindness. Protein misfolding processes are believed to cause diseases such as Alzheimer's disease, cystic fibrosis, mad cow'' disease, an inherited form of emphysema, and many cancers.
Examples of payoffs may include improving work efficiency and learning, enhancing individual sensory and cognitive capabilities, revolutionary changes in healthcare, improving both individual and group creativity, highly effective communication techniques including brain-to-brain interaction, perfecting human-machine interfaces including neuromorphic engineering, sustainable and intelligent environments including neuro-ergonomics, enhancing human capabilities for defense purposes, reaching sustainable development using NBIC tools, and ameliorating the physical and cognitive decline that is common to the aging mind.
Rapid advances in convergent technologies have the potential to enhance both human performance and the nation's productivity. Examples of payoffs will include improving work efficiency and learning, enhancing individual sensory and cognitive capabilities, revolutionary changes in healthcare, improving both individual and group efficiency, highly effective communication techniques including brain to brain interaction, perfecting human-machine interfaces including neuromorphic engineering for industrial and personal use, enhancing human capabilities for defense purposes, reaching sustainable development using NBIC tools, and ameliorating the physical and cognitive decline that is common to the aging mind.
The hallmark of neurodegenerative disease such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease or Lou Gehrigs' disease is attack by oxygen radicals on neuronal tissue. Oxidative stress by oxygen radicals has been demonstrated to induce cellular instability by a cascade of events leading to programmed cell death. Abrogation of oxidative stress therefore remains the Holy Grail for curtailing the devastating impact of neurodegenera-tive diseases. The excellent neuroprotective efficacy of fullerenes reflects their ability to react with oxygen radical species such as superoxide radicals in addition to
Self-assembling microcapsules offer physicians a great tool in drug delivery for a number of conditions and diseases. Using microcapsules to treat a disease such as Alzheimer's, for example, is a four-step process (Figure 6-11) 1) hollow microcapsule spheres with certain size pores in their outer coatings are made to self-assemble through chemical reaction with a polymer gel and a salt 2) larger molecules are encapsulated through chemical reaction at about the same time 3) smaller reactant molecules are added that slip inside the microcapsules and react with the encapsulated molecules and 4) micro size medicines flow back out in a time release fashion.
In preliminary testing, one research medical team is using nanoshells combined with lasers to kill oral cancer cells. Oral cancer is a cancerous tissue growth located in the mouth. Smoking and other tobacco use are associated with 70 percent to 80 percent of oral cancer cases. Approximately 30,000 Americans will be diagnosed with oral or pha-ryngeal cancer each year. Human clinical trials using applications of nanoshells for cancer treatment will begin within a few years. However, nanoshells are already being developed for other applications. They include drug delivery and testing for proteins associated with Alzheimer's disease.
Unfortunately, viruses may also be utilized as diabolical weapons, capable of infecting large populations. However like other technological double-edged swords, their potential benefit is even greater. Nanotechnology combined with genetic engineering could lead to virus-like entities which could stalk and destroy lethal infectious agents, malignant cells, atherosclerotic plaques which obstruct blood vessels, scar tissue which limits nerve regeneration, neurofibrillary tangles associated with senile dementia, and perhaps other diseases. Future virus-like nano-doctors may be making cellular house calls.
Unraveling Alzheimers Disease
I leave absolutely nothing out! Everything that I learned about Alzheimer’s I share with you. This is the most comprehensive report on Alzheimer’s you will ever read. No stone is left unturned in this comprehensive report.