Nanointegrated Systems

Ultimately, what we are aiming at is nanointegrated systems that can have intended or novel performances in the macroworld. Nanointegrated systems are fabricated with nanofabricated systems through unit fabrications. And nanofabricated systems are fabricated from fabrication (and/or self-assembly) building units also through unit fabrications. The performance of the nanointegrated systems can be primarily expected from the properties of the fabrication building units. However, the success of the multistep fabrication process can practically ensure the intended performance of nanointegrated systems.

The success of nanofabrication requires three key elements. They are the ability of mass assembling, the ability of directionality control, and the ability to control assembling precision. Twelve unit fabrications are proposed in the previous section to take the best advantage of the unique characteristics of the variety of self-assemblies, so we can effectively fulfill the key requirements throughout nanofabrication. Table 13.1 summarizes those representative characteristics of the self-assemblies and each unit fabrication that is proposed from them. It also presents the expected effects of the unit fabrications during nanofabrication. Some of the unit fabrications are based on the single principle of specific self-assembly. But, most of them are derived from the combined characteristics of more than one self-assembly. By breaking down the operations of nanofabrica-tion into these unit fabrications and by understanding their specific roles, the whole nanofabrication can be better performed: by logical planning, not by

TABLE 13.1. Relationship of self-assembly with unit fabrication and nanofabrication.



Unit Fabrication



Site specificity:


Surface patterning,

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