How to Recondition Batteries
Today, using lead-acid storage batteries, such a unit for a typical house to store 100 kilowatt hours of electrical energy would take up a small room and cost more than 10,000. Through revolutionary advances in nanotechnology, it may be possible to shrink an equivalent unit to the size of a washing machine and drop the cost to less than 1,000. With these advances the electrical grid can become exceedingly robust, because local storage protects customers from power fluctuations and outages. Most importantly, it permits some or all of the primary electrical power on the grid to come from solar and wind.
The improvement of preparation technology and electrochemical performance of electrode materials is a major focus of research and development in today's world. Particularly, the large scale demand for lithium rechargeable batteries or secondary batteries in day-to-day electronics (cellular phones, laptop computers, camcorders, and so forth) provided the thrust to improve their energy density, cycle life, and safety. Lithium rechargeable batteries have higher voltage (nominal voltage for Lithium ion battery is 3.6 V), higher energy density or specific energy (125 W h kg L), and longer cycle life ( 1,000 cycles) compared to conventional batteries, such as lead-acid, 89, 90 Ni-Cd, Ni-MH, 91, 92 and Ag-Zn. The performance characteristics of secondary batteries are listed in Table 6.3 93 . Also, large-scale Li-ion batteries have great potential for electric vehicles and stationary energy storage systems.
As part of the active component in energy storage systems, COPs present some drawbacks. For example, the application of COPs as electrodes for rechargeable lithium batteries led to relatively low specific capacities, high self-discharge rates and proved to be unfavorable because of the anion intercalation-deintercalation mechanism characteristic of the most promising p-doped COPs. The latter revealed uneven changes in current density during battery lifetime, but more problematical was the physical volume changes observed within the electrolyte because of the intermittent presence of anions. In other applications like photovoltaics, devices based on single-layer COPs are able to produce good voltage values but the photogenerated current has been observed to be low. The main reason for this is due to To overcome these limitations, COPs have been combined with inorganic materials to form hybrid organic-inorganic nanocomposite materials where the synergy between the organic and the...
Conducting organic polymers (COPs) on the other hand have been extensively studied as promising novel materials, based on their possible use for rechargeable batteries 38-42 and electrochemical supercapacitors 43-45 . Yet, one of the frequent problems related to the application of COPs is a relatively low capacity to store charge in such devices.
In the development of injection lasers for many purposes, such as CD players, where battery life is an issue, the critical current density is a parameter to be minimized. Intuitively this means raising the Q of the optical cavity. Additional factors, however, are important in reducing the critical current density for laser action. One of the most obvious other factors is the efficiency g in converting electrical current into light photons. In the discussion of the PN junction diode, the value of g was zero Raising the efficiency g of photon emission involves trapping the electrons and holes in the junction region, giving them more time to annihilate and reducing their chance to exit into the electrical leads.
The organization is working with an aircraft company to design a surveillance drone shaped like a mapleseed. The remote-controlled nano air vehicles (or NAVs, for short) would be dropped from an aircraft. Then, it would whirl around a battlefield snapping pictures or delivering various payloads. Besides controlling lift and pitch, the wings will also house telemetry, communications, navigation, imaging sensors, and battery power. If built, the NAV may only be about 1.5 inches long and have a maximum takeoff weight of about 0.35 ounces.
Nanotechnology Based Sensors for Weapon Health and Battlefield Environmental Monitoring Applications
Some ofthe weapon system elements such as batteries, detectors, magnetic cores, and electrolytes have limited shelf lives and specific dormant lives. These elements need intermittent monitoring of their operational status. Weapon system engineers must quantify the monitoring requirements for remotely operated NT-based sensors for a host of candidate weapon systems. Monitoring of the outgassing of weapons propellant by chemical sensors, battery voltage current ratings, receiver sensitivity, detector bias levels, magnetic field intensity, hazardous gas leakage, and other critical parameters is necessary to ensure the readiness of the weapons involved 11 . NT sensors using thin films of functionalized carbon annotate materials (CNTs) will be
MEMS-based electrical, mechanical, infrared, and optical systems occupy a total volume about few tens of cubic millimeters. Such miniaturized sensors and devices need miniaturized power sources, namely, three-dimensional (3-D), thin-film MBs. Potential architectures and technologies must be investigated to meet the operational and fabrication requirements for the MBs. Earlier research and development activities 8 recommended the deployment of conformal thin-film structures because of distinct advantages over the conventional bulk MBs such as miniaturization of the geometrical dimensions. The planar two-dimensional (2-D) thin-film batteries cannot be considered as MBs, because they require large footprints of few square centimeters to achieve a reasonable battery capacity. The maximum energy density available from a thin-film battery is about 2 J cm3. Commercial thin-film batteries with a footprint of 3 cm2 have a capacity close to 0.4 mA hour, which comes to 0.133 mA hour cm2. It...
Nanotechnology is a marketing firm's dream. Anything and everything called nano is hot these days. Look at Apple's new iPod nano. The pencil-thin, 3 xh inch long, portable sound system, with a color display, up to 14 hours of battery life, and space for up to 1,000 skip-free songs, audio books and pod casts has lots of name recognition, but no real nanoparticles (some components are sized around 100 nm) inside.
Regular and rechargeable batteries are used in almost all applications that need electrical power. Many different sized batteries are used widely in automobiles, laptop computers, electric vehicles, personal stereos, cellular phones, cordless phones, toys, and watches. Unfortunately, the life span and storage capacity of conventional and rechargeable batteries is pretty low, and they need frequent recharging. Nanocrystalline materials made with sol-gel techniques are good choices for battery separator plates because of their aerogel structure. They hold much more energy than conventional batteries. Additionally, batteries made of nanocrystalline nickel and metal hydrides will hardly ever need recharging and will last a lot longer because of their large grain boundary (surface) area and enhanced nano properties.
Novel and high-performance anode materials based on modified fullerene materials, for lithium-ion rechargeable batteries were developed. The technical feasibility of lithium-ion intercalation and de-intercalation based on the degree of anion or atomic modification of the fullerene was examined. In this approach the fullerene molecule is viewed as a large anchor molecule to which various anion or atoms can be attached to form where A could be hydrogen. The lithium-ion intercalation and de-intercalation could be driven by the formation of QoAjLi*. This could result in anode materials with a potential capacity of 1200 mAh g. Fullerenes (mixed C C , pure C , and pure C70) and hydrogenated fullerenes, both as thin film and as pasted powdered electrode in solid polymer and liquid electrolyte, were investigated. The results of this investigation demonstrated that (1) capacities of a thin film fullerene electrode in a solid polymer electrolyte were found to be low, corresponding to three...
Ing blocks for new chemicals will be a very important future application. Rechargeable batteries may turn out to be another promising application, due to the fact that reversible attachment of hydrogen to C60 could provide a charge storage per unit mass that is better than current metal hydride battery technology 20.150 . Somewhat similar considerations apply to hydrogen storage, perhaps for vehicle propulsion. Use of fullerenes for conversion to other solid products, such as diamond or SiC, may be of value in the future. As a component of solid fuel rocket propellant, fullerenes or fullerene soot may have practical advantages. Fullerenes as optical limiters and as a component in chromatography columns appear to be small-scale applications already under consideration 20.150 .
Two recent reports1,2, published by the Basic Energy Sciences Advisory Committee (BESAC) of the US Department of Energy paint an enticing picture of a sustainable and prosperous future facilitated by new technologies. The large-scale use of solar energy will be made possible by new solar cells, which are both cheap and efficient, and by the development of biomimetic refineries using sunlight, carbon dioxide and water to produce liquid fuels. New batteries or nanoengineered supercapacitors will permit the storage of cleanly generated energy, and new superconducting cables will underpin a new electrical grid. Older energy technologies, such as nuclear power, will be rejuvenated by improved materials that will allow them to operate more reliably at higher temperatures, and energy will be saved throughout the economy by the widespread use of solid-state lighting and new catalysts for industrial processes.
The obsolescence of battery technology can be immediately grasped by the short duration of the batteries of your Blackberry or of your iPhone (Figure 3.2), which makes users complain on web forums and blogs.1) On a larger scale, among the main culprits in the downfall of the electric car in the USA was the limited range (60-70 miles) and reliability of the first electric car made available for lease in Southern California in 1991 (Figure 3.3).2) 1) See,forexample,thepost Extend battery life of your iPhone 3G with tips from Apple at http www.
The production of nanoparticles for materials is racing ahead, with Mitsui having produced about 120 tonnes of nanotube material in 2004 and Mitsubishi expanding its fullerene production. These particles are finding ready applications in vehicle manufacture, for example. Sony is substituting graphite materials in electrodes with nanotubes to increase battery life, and Toyota is adding a carbon nanotube composite to its plastic car bumpers and door panels to make them stronger, lighter and electrically conductive for paint spraying.
NT can play a critical role in the design and development of photovoltaic (PV) cells, semiconductor solar cells 5 , and 3-D lithium ion microbatteries (MBs) for integration in MEMS devices or sensors. Solar cells 6 using NT-based ZnO nanorods can provide an electrical power system for battery charging banks that support 12 V lighting and appliances, whereas a 3-D lithium ion battery power package can provide electrical power for automobiles, trucks, emergency lighting for homes in case of power failure or power blackouts cellular and mobile phones, laptops, computers, portable electrical appliances, and host of other electrical appliances. Large solar installation can be tied to an electrical grid system via a grid-tie inverter. A grid-tie system consists of mounting structure, safety disconnects, installation wiring, solar modules comprising of solar cells and a grid-tie inverter. Inverters integrate three functions converting the dc from the solar modules to ac and synchronizing it...
It is evident from the above statements that the 3-D, thin-film, Li-ion MBs will able to meet the miniaturized power source requirements. Critical elements of the 3-D, thin-film MB including the current collector, graphite anode, cathode, and hybrid polymer electrolyte (HPE), and the cross section of the MB are shown in Figure 8.12. Note cathode thickness and the volume determine the maximum energy density and the battery capacity. Studies performed by research scientists indicate a significant gain in geometrical area, and therefore, cathode volume can be achieved with a perforated substrate instead of a full substrate. The area gain (AG) is strictly a function of holes or microchannels in a multichannel plate (MCP) substrate, substrate thickness, and the aspect ratio (height diameter) of the holes. Computed values of AG as a function of microchannel diameter (d), interchannel spacing, and
In the simple, harmless device demonstrated 17 , no external high voltages are needed, in principle only a few AA batteries In this case, heating the LiTaO3 crystal from 240 K to 265 K, using a 2 W heater, is stated to increase the surface charge density s by 0.0037 C m2. This should correspond to a surface electric field
A self-integrity system consisting of dedicated computers and software keeps tabs on the Companion's battery condition, structural integrity, available memory capacity, and security status. It will automatically alert a network-based emergency center if it or its owner comes to harm. If it is lost or stolen, the personal data contained inside can be automatically erased or transferred to another Companion.
Nanotubes are the greatest conductors to date, they can keep electric car batteries charged by reclaiming lost heat energy from sudden stops. It has even been suggested that gas tank materials using nanotubes could store hydrogen for fuel cell-powered cars. Fossil fuels and their associated problems would no longer be a major part of the transportation picture.
DIY Battery Repair
You can now recondition your old batteries at home and bring them back to 100 percent of their working condition. This guide will enable you to revive All NiCd batteries regardless of brand and battery volt. It will give you the required information on how to re-energize and revive your NiCd batteries through the RVD process, charging method and charging guidelines.