sonochemical treatment), solution (sol-gel, coprecipita-tion, hydrothermal synthesis, electrochemical, micro(nano)-emulsion and polymeric precursor methods), and gas (chemical vapor deposition, aerosol synthesis, atomic layer deposition). The methods described in the following section are only a subset of the wide variety of chemical routes being investigated for the preparation of nanomaterials. The underlying criterion for the selection of these chemical methods is the fact that either they rely on the availability of molecular chemical compounds as precursors or the inherent advantages of the method(s) are fortified by the use of metal-organic precursors. There has been no attempt to be comprehensive, but we have tried to provide an overall picture of the developments in material synthesis from chemical methods.

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