Spinel Particles


Spinel Particles

Scheme 11.

The emulsion method provides a physical means of controlling particle size and shape while still exploiting the advantages of sol-gel processing. The principal limitation of emulsion methods is that the emulsion structure is not at thermodynamic equilibrium and should be stabilized by the addition of surfactants that lower the interfacial tension between the phases and decrease the rate at which the droplets coalesce. Furthermore, the surfactant molecules have large molecular weights, and even a small amount of unremoved (uncracked) surfactant can result in significant organic contamination in the ceramic material.

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