T I ci I2

are normalized. The trial wavefunction contains a number of variational parameters. The integral (7) may be rewritten in an importance sampled i.t.|2

form in terms of the probability density distribution function y in the following form:

rwi w

The energy is then minimized as a function of the latter. This is the basis for the most accurate calculations of the ground state properties of a many-particle quantum system.

Importance sampling can also be used to compute the partition function and average of thermodynamic quantities of a few interacting particles in a finite box [8]:

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