Carbon is quite an important element in our lives. Existing abundantly in the earth and the universe, it can be widely used in the future technology. Pure carbon exists in four different crystalline forms: Diamond, Graphite, Fullerenes and Nanotubes. Other common carbon includes amorphous carbon, charcoals, soot and glassy carbon (microcrystalline forms of graphite). Before C60 was discovered in 1985, Diamond and graphite are the two well-known forms of crystalline carbon. Then, in 1991, Iijima discovered carbon nanotubes (CNTs). Scientists and engineers are interested in this exotic carbon structure and have discovered series of theory and method for the synthesis of CNTs. There are still other special carbon nanostructures, such as nanoballs, nanofibers. Each structure may have its own theory and can be applied in special fields. This chapter provides an overview of current science and technology of carbon nanostructures, with a special focus on the synthesis of CNTs and fullerenes and their applications.
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