In recent years, the structural modification and finishing methodology has attracted many researchers, system developers and integrators due to the fact that many mechanical and optical parts in the high-precision domain require precise structural perfection and manipulation on the nanometer scale. Nanomachining is a process that can provide advanced material shaping in this realm. Nanofinishing is a subset of the nanomachining process. Final finishing operations in the manufacturing of ultra-precision parts and components are always of concern owing to their physical, critical and controllable nature. In the domain of sophisticated miniature technology, deterministic high precision finishing methods are of utmost importance and are essential to the present micromanufacturing scenario. Proven finishing operations are:

• Grinding, honing and lapping

• Abrasive Flow Machining (AFM) with SiC abrasives

• Magnetic Abrasive finishing (MAF)

• Magnetic Float Polishing (MFP) with CeO2

• Magnetorheological Finishing (MRF) with CeO2

• Elastic Emission Machining (EEM) with ZrO2 abrasives

It has been predicted that machining accuracies in conventional processes would reach 1 ^m, while accuracies in precision and ultra-precision machining would reach 0.01 ^m (10 nm) and 0.001 ^m (1 nm), respectively.

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