Preface

Sophisticated miniaturised components and systems may indeed change all kinds of products and equipment in the most dramatic way. Methodology and design of miniaturisation represent a broad research topic with applications in fundamental physics, chemistry, martial science, computing methods, ultra-precision engineering, fabrication technology, micromachining, and many others based on the principles, characterization, modeling, simulation, sophistication, flexibility of state-of-the-art technology. Micromanufacturing and Nanotechnology (MaN), an advanced product and equipment design concept has emerged and caters to the need for miniaturisation. Technological research in the field of MaN is now expanding; its design phases appear to be highly complex and involve multi-physics and interdisciplinary approaches. The main objective of this book is to provide information on concepts, principles, characteristics, applications, latest technological developments and comparisons with regard to micro/nanosystems and technology. It incorporates research, development, tutorials and case studies. Academic and industrial research and developments in microengineering, micromanufacturing, micromechanics and nanotechnology are being carried out at many different institutions around the world. The technological trend in this domain (e.g., design and development methodology, current application scenarios, pros and cons, etc.) needs to be disseminated extensively so that the MaN revolution can spread to serve society. In particular, the book is intended to focus on describing the implicit concept of micromanufacturing and nanotechnology, multi-physical principle of microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) and micro-opto-electro-mechanical systems (MOEMS), design tips and hints, as much as the techniques and methodology.

Micromanufacturing and nanotechnology are two sides of a coin. There has been confusion and arguments on the terms microengineering, microsystems, ultra-precision engineering, micromachining, nanofinishing, micromechanics, microstructures and microsystems. The authors of the Chapters have attempted to clarify this confusion. The book will undoubtedly enable the readers to understand the underlying technology, philosophy, concepts, ideas, and principles, with regard to broader areas of micromanufacturing and nanotechnology such as application of laser technology, lithography, bulk and surface micromachining, nanofinishing, error compensation, MEMS, MOEMS, carbon nanotubes, micro energy chemical system, fuel cell, microstructure for space propulsion, biosensor, etc. Aspects of microsystems in terms of design process, practice, techniques, platforms, and experimental results have been presented in proper order. The chapters include topical and general description as far as current research and technological developments are concerned. Fundamental methods, initiatives, significant research results as well as references for further study have been presented. Relative merits and demerits are described at the appropriate places so that novices as well as advanced practitioners can use the evaluation to guide their choices. All the contributions have been reviewed, edited, processed and placed appropriately in order to maintain consistency so that irrespective of whether the reader is an advanced practitioner or a new comer he or she can get most out of it. Since this book covers many aspects of interdisciplinary subjects, the importance of the book within the micro and nano domain is considered significant. The roadmap of the book is as follows.

Chapter 1 is a general introduction. Chapter 2 presents the principles of MEMS and MOEMS. Very precise definitions of different physical phenomena and their utilisation with respect to MEMS and MOEMS have been presented. Chapter 3 presents fundamental principles of application of laser technology in micromanufacturing. Geometrical compensation of high precision machine system is of paramount importance. Chapter 4 highlights the basic principle and experimental architecture of computer assisted laser interferometer based method for achieving compensation of errors. In this chapter the model of error and procedural method of its compensation is described. Chapter 5 discusses about the bulk micromachining processes, a fundamental process requirement for microsystems and equipment manufacturing. A step forward to this process is considered as surface micromachining. Chapter 6 adheres the principle of surface micromanufacturing. Chapter 7 discusses latest developments on microsystem conformant OVD (Optically Variable Device), a very demanding device that has long been used for document security applications. Various types of nanofinishing techniques, the important method in manipulating and describing not only micro-but the macrosystems are described in the Chapter 8. The role of micro- and nanotechnology in space applications is presented in Chapter 9. Carbon nanotubes and nanostructures are introduced in Chapter 10 and 11. It has been variously that the future of the computing world will be based on molecular computing. A comprehensive description of molecular logic gates based on fluorescence, absorption and electronic conductance is presented in Chapter 12. Chapter 13 provides some research outcome with regard to the design of microscale cantilever devices that can act as biological sensors. Transportation of micro-energy through microdevices is a challenging breakthrough and is referred to as MECS (Micro Energy and Chemical Systems). Potential applications are microelectronic cooling systems, chemical reactors, fuel processing and heat pumps as outlined in Chapter 14. Next, a detailed description of sculptured thin films is provided. The following two chapters discuss e-beam and optical nanolithography techniques, respectively. Chapter 18 provides some phenomenological description of nanotechnology vis-à-vis fuel cell applications. Derivatisation of carbon nanotubes with amine and chemical crosslinking in C60 thin films are presented in Chapter 19 and 20, respectively.

The success story of this book 'Micromanufacturing and Nanotechnology' is in fact due to the direct and indirect involvement of many researchers, advisors, technocrats, academicians, developers, integrators, designers, and last but not the least the well-wishers. Therefore, the editor and hence the publisher acknowledge the potential authors and companies whose papers, reports, articles, notes, study materials, etc. have been referred in this book. Further, many of the authors of the respective chapters gracefully acknowledge their funding agencies, without which their research could not have been completed. In particular persons such as M. Adrian Michalicek, Wassanai Wattanutchariya, Kannachai Kanlayasiri, Joseph Thomas, Hadi Hasan, Nitin Sharma, Patrick Kwon, Sharee McNab, David Melville, Conrad Wolf, Andrew Thompson, Alan Wright, Helen Devereux, Gary Turner and Mike Flaws and the following agencies, institutes, companies and journals are acknowledged.

Ministry of Science & Technology (Project code MS-01-133-01); Marsden Fund of the Royal Society of New Zealand (UOC-604 and UOC-312); EPSRC (UK) (Grant No. HPRN-CT-2000-00028, and GR/N12657/01); NEDO (Japan) through JRCAT; National Council of Science and Technology of Mexico (CONACYT-36317-E & 40399-Y); European Space Agency; National Autonomous University of Mexico (grants DGAPA-IN100402-3 and -IN100303); Ministry of Industry, Government of Orissa; University College of Engineering, Burla; Texas Instruments; University of Colorado at Boulder; Journal of Micromechanics and Microengineering; IEEE Journal of Microelectromechanical Systems; Nature Materials; The FORESIGHT Institute.

Nitaigour Premchand Mahalik

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