Structure of Carbon Nanofibers CNFs

Carbon nanofibers have recently received large attention for industrial application. Various shapes of CNFs have been discovered in the last several years, such as hexagonal, corn-shaped and helical ones.

11.6.1 Hexagonal CNFs

A newly research pointed that a transverse section of platelet and tubular CNFs had a hexagonal shape, not a round shape, very different from the traditional ones (Fig. 11.18) (Tanaka et al 2004). It is observed in the platelet CNF, the hexagonal planes were stacked perpendicular to the fiber axis.

11.6.2 Corn-shaped CNFs

Corn-shaped CNFs contain a corn angle 9. 9 can be deduced from the projected dimensions of the tilted cones. Normally, the 9 can be decreased with the increase of substrate temperature (Hayashi et al. 2004). Fig. 11.19 gives out several CNFs with different angle 9.

11.6.3 Helical CNFs

There exist two helical fibers that had opposite helical senses, but had identical cycle number, coil diameter, coil length, coil pitch, cross section, and fiber diameter (Fig. 11.20) (Qin et al. 2004). As shown in Fig. 11.20, we can observe two helical fibers with irregular tips (A) in different morphologies and (B) in identical morphologies. This was a novel mirror-symmetric growth mode.

Fig. 11.18: Magnified HRSEM photographs of (a) platelet CNF, and (b) tubular CNF

Fig. 11.19: HRTEM images of three types CNFs with corn angles of 20°, 39° (b), and60° (a), respectively

Fig. 11.19: HRTEM images of three types CNFs with corn angles of 20°, 39° (b), and60° (a), respectively

Fig. 11.20: TEM views of two opposite helical fibers

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