R

We do not want to discuss the details of this potential and refer to 483 , but the following should mentioned If Sj 2, then the pair terms have the form of the usual Morse potential (Section 5.1) and, furthermore, the equilibrium distance Re), the well depth Dj, and the parameter fi j are equal to the parameters for the usual Morse potential (independent of the value of S j). Critical remarks concerning the Morse potential are given in Section 5.1. Applications The potentials introduced above...

Bulk Methods for the Description of Nanosystems

In modern materials research, solid-state physics becomes more and more relevant, in particular, the microscopic structure and dynamics. For sufficiently large systems, the standard model of solid-state physics is in most cases adequate for the description of material properties. The standard model of solid-state physics is based on the ordered structure and on the assumption that the vibrational amplitudes of the atoms are sufficiently small, so that it can work within the harmonic...

Brillouin Scattering

Although Raman spectroscopy is a powerful tool for studying the structure of carbon-based materials, the information is restricted to the scale of a few nanometers. The experimental characterization and theoretical modeling of cluster-assembled granular materials must address the problem of cluster coalescence and their organization in structures spanning length scales from the nanometer up to the micrometer. The different structures in which the precursor clusters are organized needs...

History

Accounts on the use of colloidal gold can be found throughout history. The oldest object containing gold nanoparticles is frequently cited as being the Lycurgus Chalice from fifth century Rome 1, 2 . However, accounts of colloidal gold preparations may extend further back in time. Colloidal gold is found in treatments in the alternative medicine Ayurveda the traditional medical system of India , which has its written origins in the Vedas, the sacred texts of India. The Vedas are believed to be...