Brainto Brain and Brainto Machine Interfaces

The communication among people and between people and machines or tools has not been fully realized because of the indirect interactions. The external tools need to be manipulated as an independent extension of one's body in order to achieve the desired goal. If machines and devices could be incorporated into the "neural space" as an extension of one's muscles or senses, they could lead to unprecedented augmentation in human sensory, motor, cognitive, and communication performance.

A major goal is to measure and simulate processes from the neuron level and then to develop interfaces to interact with the neural system. A visionary project by Llinas and Makarov proposes a nonintrusive retrievable cardiovascular approach to measure neuron and group-of-neuron activities, and on this basis, to develop two-way direct human communication and man-machine telepresence.

Another goal is to establish direct links between neuronal tissue and machines that would allow direct control of mechanical, electronic, and even virtual objects as if they were extensions of human bodies. Another visionary project by Nicolelis proposes electrophysiological methods to extract information about intentional brain processes and then translate the neural signals into models that are able to control external devices.

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