We proposed that a novel brain-machine interface is realizable that would allow a robust solution to this important problem. This hardware/software approach allows a direct brain interface and the classification of its functional states using a benign invasive approach. We propose that this approach would be very helpful in human capacity augmentation and will yield significant new information regarding normal and abnormal brain function. Because its development and utilization is inevitable given the extraordinarily attractive feature of being retrievable, in the sense that the recording/stimulating filaments are small enough that the device can be removed without violating the integrity of the brain parenchyma.

Because such interfaces will probably be streamlined over the coming years in efforts such as "hypervision" (LlinĂ¢s and Vorontsov in preparation), two-way direct human communication, and man-machine telepresence (which would allow actuator-based distant manipulation), this approach should be fully examined. Finally, the development of new nanotechnology instrumentation may ultimately be an important tool in preventive medicine and in diagnostic/therapeutic outcome monitoring of physiological parameters.

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