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Figure A.20. The "Innovation Age." Organizations will change the focus from repetitive to creative, innovation-based activities, and transfer efforts from machines to human development.

- The measures should encourage international collaboration based on mutual interest. The U.S. investments in the areas of nanoscience and nanotechnology represent about one-third of the global investment made by government organizations worldwide. At NSF, support is made available to investigator-initiated collaborations and through activities sponsored by the Foundation.

- National and cultural traditions will provide the diverse support for a creative society, and their role appears to also provide the continuity and stability necessary for a prosperous society.

- The chief aim of taking visionary and macroscale measures is to create the knowledge base and institutional infrastructure necessary to accelerate the beneficial use of the new knowledge and technology and reduce the potential for harmful consequences. To achieve this, the scientific and technology community must set broad goals; involve all participants, including the public; and creatively envision the future. The implementation plans must include measures for stimulating the convergence and beneficial interaction among the S&E megatrends, including coordinated R&D activities, joint education, and infrastructure development.

b) Strategic decisions taken at the level of R&D providers and users of an S&E megatrend. The main goal of the strategy adopted by the National Nanotechnology Initiative is to fully take advantage of this new technology by coordinated and timely investment in ideas, people, and tools. A coherent approach has been developed for funding the critical areas of nanoscience and engineering, establishing a balanced and flexible infrastructure, educating and training the necessary workforce, promoting partnerships, and avoiding unnecessary duplication of efforts. Key investment strategies are

- Focusing on fundamental research. This strategy aims to encourage revolutionary discoveries and open a broader net of results as compared to development projects for the same resources.

- Maintaining a policy of inclusion and partnerships. This applies to various disciplines, areas of relevance, research providers and users, technology and societal aspects, and international integration.

- Recognizing the importance of visionary, macroscale management measures. This includes defining the vision of nanotechnology, establishing the R&D priorities and interagency implementation plan, integrating short-term technological developments into the broader loop of long-term R&D opportunities and societal implications, using peer review for NNI, developing a suitable legal framework, and integrating some international efforts. Work done under NSTC (the White House) has allowed us to effectively address such broader issues.

- Preparing the nanotechnology workforce. A main challenge is to educate and train a new generation of skilled workers in the multidisciplinary perspectives necessary for rapid progress in nanotechnology. The concepts at the nanoscale (atomic, molecular, and supramolecular levels) should penetrate the education system in the next decade in a manner similar to that of microscopic approach over the last forty to fifty years.

- Addressing the broad goals of humanity. Nanoscale science and engineering must be designed to lead to better understanding of nature, improved wealth, health, sustainability, and peace. This strategy has strong roots, and, it is hoped, may bring people and countries together. An integral aspect of broader goals is increasing productivity by applying innovative nanotechnology for commerce (manufacturing, computing and communications, power systems, energy).

- Identifying and exploiting coherence with other major S&E trends. As part of an S&E trend, one may address a scientific and technological "grand challenge" at the national level.

c) Strategic decisions taken at the organizational level. The organization level is concerned with optimum outcome in each department, agency, national laboratory, or other organization.

d) Strategic decisions taken at the level of the individual. The individual level addresses issues related to education, motivation, productivity, and personal involvement.

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