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Figure B.1. Cognitive East/West alignment effects.

Figure B.1. Cognitive East/West alignment effects.

Golledge has argued that these (and other storage, processing, and externalizing biases) result in perceptual and cognitive errors in encoding, internally manipulating, decoding and using stored information. The following are examples of the accommodations humans make to deal with these biases (incidentally developing new ones):

• making naturally occurring irregular shapes and areas regular for purposes of simplification, representation, and generalization

• mentally rotating features or distributions to fit preconceptions (e.g., vertically aligning North and South America, as shown in Figure B.1)

• imposing hierarchical orderings to clarify distributions (e.g., systems of landmarks)

• making effective rational decisions without perfect information

• cognitively generalizing from one scale to another without appropriate empirical evidence (e.g., from laboratory to real world scales)

• realizing that data collected for machine use has to be more perfect than data collected for human use.

Figure B.2. Three examples of cognitive maps, of long-term residents (top), mid-term residents, (middle), and newcomers (bottom), recovered using non-metric multidimensional scaling of cognitive interpoint distances. (The exact parallel reversals for memory loss is speculative.)

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