Albert, R., H. Jeong, and A-L. Barabasi. 2000. Error and attack tolerance of complex networks. Nature 406: 378-382. Albert, R., H. Jeong, and A.-L. Barabasi. 1999. Diameter of the World-Wide Web. Nature 401:130-131. Anderson, J.A., and E. Rosenfeld, eds. 1988. Neurocomputing. Cambridge: MIT Press. Arrow, K.J. 1963. Social choice and individual values. New York: Wiley. Ashby, W.R. 1957. An introduction to cybernetics. London: Chapman and Hall.

Aumann, R.J., and S. Hart, eds. 1992. Handbook of game theory with economic applications, Vols. 1, 2. Amsterdam: North-Holland.

Axelrod, R.M. 1984. The evolution of cooperation. New York: Basic Books.

Bak, P. 1996. How Nature works: The science ofself-organized criticality. New York: Copernicus, Springer-Verlag.

Bak, P., and C. Tang. 1989. Earthquakes as a self-organized critical phenomenon, J. Geophys. Res., 94(15):635-37.

Ball, P. 1999. The self-made tapestry: Pattern formation in Nature. Oxford: Oxford Univ. Press.

Banavar, J.R., A. Maritan, and A. Rinaldo. 1999. Size and form in efficient transportation networks. Nature 399: 130-132.

Barabasi, A.-L., and R. Albert. 1999. Emergence of scaling in random networks. Science 286: 509-511.

Barthélémy, M., and L.A.N. Amaral. 1999. Small-world networks: Evidence for a crossover picture. Phys. Rev. Lett. 82: 3180-3183.

Bar-Yam, Y. 1997. Dynamics of complex systems. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.

Bar-Yam, Y. 2000. Formalizing the gene-centered view of evolution. Advances in Complex Systems 2: 277-281.

Bar-Yam, Y., and A. Minai, eds. 2002. Unifying themes in complex systems II: Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Complex Systems. Perseus Press.

Bar-Yam, Y., ed. 2000. Unifying themes in complex systems: Proceedings of the International Conference on Complex Systems. Perseus Press.

Beaudry, A., and G. F. Joyce. 1992. Directed evolution of an RNA enzyme. Science 257: 635-641.

Bishop, M. 1995. Neural networks for pattern recognition. New York: Oxford University Press.

Brandon, R.N., and R.M. Burian, eds. 1984. Genes, organisms, populations: Controversies over the units of selection. Cambridge: MIT Press.

Bray, J. 1994. Advances in Physics 43: 357.

Buldyrev, S.V., M.J. Erickson, P. Garik, P. Hickman, L.S. Shore, H.E. Stanley, E.F. Taylor, and P.A. Trunfio. N.d. "Doing science" by learning about fractals. Working Paper, Boston Univ. Center for Polymer Science.

Bush, G.H.W. 1990. By the President of the United States of America A Proclamation, Presidential Proclamation 6158.

Casti, J.L. 1994. Complexification: Explaining a paradoxical world through the science of surprise. New York: Harper Collins.

Cheswick, W., and H. Burch. N.d. Internet mapping project. Online:

Coveney, P., and R. Highfield. 1995. Frontiers of complexity: The search for order in a chaotic world. New York: Fawcett Columbine.

Cvitanovic, P., ed. 1989. Universality in chaos: A reprint selection. 2d ed. Bristol: Adam Hilger.

Darwin, C. 1964 (1859). On the origin of species (by means of natural selection). A facsimile of the first edition, 1859. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.

Davidson, A., M.H. Teicher, and Y. Bar-Yam. 1997. The role of environmental complexity in the well-being of the elderly. Complexity and Chaos in Nursing 3: 5.

Day, W. 1984. Genesis on Planet Earth: The search for life's beginning. 2nd ed. New Haven: Yale Univ. Press.

Devaney, R.L. 1989. Introduction to chaotic dynamical systems, 2d ed. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.

Dodds, P.S., and D.H. Rothman. 2000. Scaling, universality, and geomorphology. Annu. Rev. Earth Planet. Sci. 28:571-610.

Ernst and Young. 2000. Embracing complexity. Vols. 1-5, 1996-2000. Ernst and Young, Ctr. for Business Innovation.

Fersht, A.. 1999. Structure and mechanism in protein science: A guide to enzyme catalysis and protein folding. New York: W.H. Freeman.

Fogel, L.J., A.J. Owens, and M.J. Walsh. 1966. Artificial intelligence through simulated evolution. New York: Wiley. Forrest, S.S., A. Hofmeyr, and A. Somayaji. 1997. Computer immunology. Communications of the ACM 40:88-96. Fudenberg, D., and J. Tirole. 1991. Game theory. Cambridge: MIT Press.

Fuhrman, S., X. Wen, G. Michaels, and R. Somogyi. 1998. Genetic network inference. InterJournal 104. Gallagher, R., and T. Appenzeller. 1999. Beyond reductionism. Science 284:79. Gell-Mann, M. 1994. The quark and the jaguar. New York: W.H. Freeman. Gleick, J. 1987. Chaos: Making a new science. New York: Penguin.

Goldberg, L.A., P.W. Goldberg, C.A. Phillips, and G.B. Sorkin. 1998. Constructing computer virus phylogenies. Journal ofAlgorithms 26 (1): 188-208.

Goldberger, L., D.R. Rigney, and B.J. West. 1990. Chaos and fractals in human physiology. Sci. Amer. 262:40-49.

Golubitsky, M., I. Stewart, P.L. Buono, and J.J. Collins. 1999. Symmetry in locomotor central pattern generators and animal gaits. Nature 401:675), 693-695 (Oct 14).

Goodwin, B.C. 1994. How the leopard changed its spots: The evolution ofcomplexity. New York: C. Scribner's Sons.

Goto, T., S. Kshirsagar, and N. Magnenat-Thalmann. 2001. Automatic face cloning and animation. IEEE Signal Processing Magazine 18 (3) (May):17-25.

Herschlag, D., and T.R. Cech. 1990. DNA cleavage catalysed by the ribozyme from Tetrahymena. Nature 344:405-410.

Herz, J.C. 2001. The allure of chaos. The Industry Standard (Jun 25). Online:,1902,27309,00.html

Heudin, J.C., ed. 1998. Virtual worlds: Synthetic universes, digital life, and complexity. Reading, MA: Perseus.

Holland, J.H. 1992. Adaptation in natural and artificial systems. 2d ed. Cambridge: MIT Press.

_. 1995. Hidden order: How adaptation builds complexity. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.

Horn, P. 2001. Autonomic computing. IBM.

Huberman, A., and L.A. Adamic. 1999. Growth dynamics of the World-Wide Web. Nature 401:131.

Huberman, A., and R.M. Lukose. 1997. Science 277:535-538.

Huberman, A., P. Pirolli, J. Pitkow, and R.M. Lukose. 1998. Science 280:95-97.

Hutchins, E. 1995. Cognition in the wild. Cambridge: MIT Press.

INSS. 1997. 1997 Strategic assessment. Institute for National Strategic Studies. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office (National Defense University Press).

IOM. 2000. To err is human: Building a safer health system. Washington, D.C.: Institute of Medicine.

Jeong, H., B. Tombor, R. Albert, Z. Oltvai, and A.-L. Barabasi. 2001. The large-scale organization of metabolic networks. Nature 407, 651 - 654 (05 Oct 2000).

Kalra, P., N. Magnenat-Thalmann, L. Moccozet, G. Sannier, A. Aubel, and D. Thalmann. 1988. RealTime animation of realistic virtual humans. Computer Graphics and Applications 18(5):42-56.

Kandel, E.R., J.H. Schwartz ,and T.M. Jessell, eds. 2000. Principles of neural science. 4th ed. NY: McGraw-Hill.

Kauffman, S. 1969. Metabolic stability and epigenesis in randomly constructed genetic nets. J. Theor. Biol. 22:437.

Kauffman, S.A. 1993. The origins of order: Self organization and selection in evolution. NY: Oxford Univ. Press.

_. 1995. At home in the universe. NY: Oxford Univ. Press.

Kephart, J.O., G.B. Sorkin, D.M. Chess, and S. R. White. 1997. Fighting computer viruses: Biological metaphors offer insight into many aspects of computer viruses and can inspire defenses against them. Scientific American. November.

Latora, V., and M. Marchiori. 2001. Efficient behavior of small-world networks. Phys. Rev. Lett. 87:198701.

Lawrence, S., and C.L. Giles. 1999. Accessibility of information on the web. Nature 400:107-109.

Lewin, R. 1992. Complexity: Life at the edge of chaos. New York: Macmillan.

Lewontin, R. 2000. The triple helix: Gene, organism, and environment. Cambridge: Harvard Univ. Press.

Lipsitz, L.A., and A.L. Goldberger. 1992. Loss of "complexity" and aging. JAMA 267:1806-1809.

Lorenz, E.N. 1963. Deterministic nonperiodic flow. J. Atmosph. Sci. 20:130-141.

Mandell, J., and M.F. Schlesinger. 1990. Lost choices: Parallelism and topo entropy decrements in neuro-biological aging. In The ubiquity of chaos, ed. S. Krasner. Washington, D.C.: Amer. Assoc. Adv. of Science.

Maritan, A., F. Colaiori, A. Flammini, M. Cieplak, and J. Banavar. 1996. Universality classes of optimal channel networks. Science 272: 984-986.

Meinhardt, H. 1994. The algorithmic beauty of sea shell patterns. New York: Springer-Verlag.

Meyer, A., and T.A. Brown. 1998. Statistical mechanics of voting. Phys. Rev. Lett. 81:1718-1721.

Milgram, S. 1967. The small-world problem. Psychol. Today2:60-67.

_. 1992. The small world problem. In The individual in a social world: Essays and experiments. 2nd ed., ed.

S. Milgram, J. Sabini, and M. Silver. New York: McGraw Hill.

Murray, J.D. 1989. Mathematical biology. New York: Springer-Verlag.

Nielsen, J. 1993. Usability engineering. Boston: Academic Press.

NIGMS. 2002. Complex Biological Systems Initiative, National Institute of General Medical Science, NIH,

Nijhout, H.F. 1992. The development and evolution of butterfly wing patterns. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press.

NIMH. 2002. Learning and the brain, National Institute of Mental Health, NIH. Online:

NLM. 2002. The Visible Human Project, National Library of Medicine.

NOAA. 2002. Ecosystems and Global Change, NOAA National Data Centers, NGDC

Noest, J. 2000. Designing lymphocyte functional structure for optimal signal detection: Voilà, T cells. Journal of Theoretical Biology, 207(2):195-216.

Norman, A., and S. Draper, eds. 1986. User centered system design: New perspectives in human-computer interaction. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

Normile, D. 1999. Complex systems: Building working cells "in silico." Science 284: 80.

NSF. N.d. Biocomplexity initiative:;;

NSF. 2001. Joint DMS/NIGMS Initiative to Support Research Grants in Mathematical Biology. National Science Foundation Program Announcement NSF 01-128, online at

Appleton, W. 2000. Science at the interface. Oak Ridge National Laboratory Review (Virtual human) 33: 8-11.

Ott, E. 1993. Chaos in dynamical systems. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Perelson, W., and F.W. Wiegel. 1999. Some design principles for immune system recognition. Complexity 4: 29-37.

Pierre, D.M., D. Goldman, Y. Bar-Yam, and A. S. Perelson. 1997. Somatic evolution in the immune system: The need for germinal centers for efficient affinity maturation. J. Theor. Biol. 186:159-171.

Quist, D., I.H. Chapela. 2001. Transgenic DNA introgressed into traditional maize landraces in Oaxaca, Mexico. Nature 414:541-543 (29 Nov).

Rundle, B., D.L. Turcotte, and W. Klein, eds. 1996. Reduction and predictability of natural disasters. Reading, MA: Perseus Press.

Sayama, H., L. Kaufman, and Y. Bar-Yam. 2000. Symmetry breaking and coarsening in spatially distributed evolutionary processes including sexual reproduction and disruptive selection. Phys. Rev. E 62:7065.

Schaff, J., C. Fink, B. Slepchenko, J. Carson and L. Loew. 1997. A general computational framework for modeling cellular structure and function. Biophys. J. 73:1135-1146.

Segel, L.A. 1984. Modeling dynamic phenomena in molecular and cellular biology. Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press.

Segel, L.A., and I.R. Cohen, eds. 2001. Design principles for the immune system and other distributed autonomous systems. New York: Oxford University Press.

Service, R.F. 1999. Complex systems: Exploring the systems of life. Science 284: 80.

Shannon, E. 1963. A mathematical theory of communication. In Bell Systems Technical Journal, July and October 1948; reprinted in C.E. Shannon and W. Weaver, The mathematical theory of communication. Urbana: University of Illinois Press.

Simon, H.A. 1998. The sciences of the artificial. 3rd ed. Cambridge: MIT Press.

Simpson, H. 1951. The interpretation of interaction in contingency tables. Journal of the Royal Statistical Society, Ser. B 13:238-241.

Smith, J.M. 1982. Evolution and the theory of games. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Smith, M.A., Y. Bar-Yam, and W. Gelbart. 2001. Quantitative languages for complex systems applied to biological structure. In Nonlinear dynamics in the life and social sciences, ed. W. Sulis and I. Trofimova, NATO Science Series A/320. Amsterdam: IOS Press.

Sober, E., and D.S. Wilson. 1999. Unto others. Cambridge: Harvard Univ. Press.

Stacey, R.D. 1996. Complexity and creativity in organizations. San Francisco: Berrett-Koehler.

_. 2001. Complex responsive processes in organizations. New York: Routledge.

Stein, L.A. 1999. Challenging the computational metaphor: Implications for how we think. Cybernetics and Systems 30 (6):473-507.

Sterman, J.D. 2000. Business dynamics: Systems thinking and modeling for a complex world. Irwin Professional.

Stern, P.C., and L.L. Carstensen, eds. 2000. The aging mind: Opportunities in cognitive research. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press.

Strausberg, R.L., and M.J.F. Austin. 1999. Functional genomics: Technological challenges and opportunities. Physiological Genomics 1:25-32.

Strogatz, S.H. 1994. Nonlinear dynamics and chaos with applications to physics, biology, chemistry, and engineering. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.

Szostak, J.W. 1999. In vitro selection and directed evolution, Harvey Lectures 93:95-118. John Wiley & Sons.

Tomita, M., K. Hashimoto, K. Takahashi, T. Shimizu, Y. Matsuzaki, F. Miyoshi, K. Saito, S. Tanida, K. Yugi, J.C. Venter, and C. Hutchison. 1999. E-CELL: Software environment for whole cell simulation. Bioinforma tics 15:316-317.

Triantafyllou, G.S., and M.S. Triantafyllou. 1995. An efficient swimming machine. Scientific American 272: 64-70.

Turing, A.M. 1952. The chemical basis of morphogenesis, Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. B 237(641):37-72.

von Dassow, G., E. Meir, E.M Munro, and G.M Odell. 2001. The segment polarity is a robust developmental module. Nature 406:188-192.

von Neumann, J., and O. Morgenstern. 1944. Theory of games and economic behavior. Princeton Univ. Press.

Waldrop, M.M. 1992. Complexity: The emerging science at the edge of order and chaos. NY: Simon & Schuster.

Wasserman, S., and K. Faust. 1994. Social network analysis. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Watts, J. 1999. Small worlds. Princeton: Princeton Univ. Press.

Watts, J., and S.H. Strogatz. 1998. Collective dynamics of 'small-world' networks. Nature 393:440-442.

Weng, G., U.S. Bhalla, and R. Iyengar. 1999. Complexity in biological signaling systems. Science 284:92.

Williams, R.J., and N.D. Martinez. 2000. Simple rules yield complex food webs. Nature 404:180-183.

Wilson, K.G. 1983. The renormalization-group and critical phenomena. Reviews of Modern Physics 55(3):583-600.

World Bank. 1998. Partnership for development: Proposed actions for the World Bank (May).

Zegura, E.W., K.L. Calvert, and M.J. Donahoo. 1997. A quantitative comparison of graph-based models for internet topology. IEEE/ACM Trans. Network. 5: 770-787.

0 0

Post a comment