Info

2l/2

31/2

Bond angle

180°

120°

109°28'

Figure 5.2. (a) Carbon cube structure of cubane CgH8 and (b) carbon dodecahedron structure of CajHa,.

shown in Fig. 5.2b, formed by joining carbon pentagons, and having C—C bond angles ranging from 108° to 110°. The synthesis of these hydrocarbon molecules with carbon bond angles different from the standard hybridization values of Table 5.1 has important implications for the formation of carbon nanostructures, which would also require different bonding angles.

5.3. CARBON CLUSTERS 5.3.1. Small Carbon Clusters

Laser evaporation of a carbon substrate using the apparatus shown in Fig. 4.2 in a pulse of He gas can be used to make carbon clusters. The neutral cluster beam is photoionized by a UV laser and analyzed by a mass spectrometer. Figure 5.3 shows

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