The Distinctness of Nanoscience Engineering and Technology

We have seen how the scientific discoveries and technological inventions of the past three centuries have revolutionized the manufacturing sector and society. The common traits of the new technologies that transformed human and social life in-between the first Industrial Revolution and the Digital Revolution are that they were designed for large-scale production which was capital- and energy-intensive in consonance with the needs of large manufacturing infrastructures, and were designed to...

Optical Properties

The optical properties of nanoparticles have been extensively investigated in recent years.When an electromagnetic wave passes through a metal particle, the electronic and vibrational states get excited. The optical interaction induces a dipole moment that oscillates coherently at the frequency of the incident wave. The frequency of this oscillation depends on the electron density, its effective mass, the shape and size of the charge undergoing oscillation. There can be other influences such as...

Intensities in Xray Scattering

Intensities are important in X-ray analysis for determining unknown crystal structures and quantitative phase analysis. X-rays are electromagnetic waves and can interact with electrons, thus making them vibrate. The vibrating charge will emit electromagnetic radiation which is in phase (coherent) with the incident X-ray. Coherent scattering is similar to elastic collision and the wavelength of the X-ray is not changed. The intensity of the radiation scattered can be given by the Thomson...

Harnessing Nanotechnology for Sustainable Development

For the development and application of technology to be successful, it needs to be designed in consonance with the needs of the target group and to be suited to the socio-economic context. Nanoscale science and its deriving technologies can virtually enhance the lives of nearly every human being, be he rich or poor, because of its pervasive benefits and its suitability in resource-limited settings (Ref. 16). It has the potential to provide the most innovative tools and strategies for fighting...

Influence of Electrostatic Interactions in the Binding of Proteins with Nanoparticles

It has been suggested that each gold nanoparticle has an Au (0) core and an Au (I) surface, as a result of the preferential adsorption of Au (I) ion on the surface at the time of formation of the nanoparticle. Citrate ions co-ordinate to the Au (I) atoms on the surface, resulting in an overall negative charge for each particle. Nanoparticles are capable of binding with oppositely charged species in aqueous solutions through electrostatic interactions based on the ionic characteristics of their...

Some Unusual Properties

In this section, are briefly summarized some of the fascinating discoveries in this area. C60 shows anomalous solubility behavior. Normal solutes show a linear temperature dependence of solubility. In most cases, the solubility increases upon warming. In inorganic systems, unusual phenomena are seen due to solute-solvent interactions. Studies of solubility of C60, studied in a number of solvents, indicate that there is a solubility maximum at near room temperature Ref. 118 280 K , dissolution...

Synthesis and Purification of Fullerenes

For a synthesis of fullerenes, all that is needed is a welding transformer, a chamber connected to a vacuum pump even a single stage oil sealed rotary pump is adequate and some graphite rods. The graphite electrodes are brought into close contact with each other and an arc is struck in an atmosphere of 100 200 Torr of helium or argon. To sustain the arc, a voltage of 20 V ac or dc may be necessary. For a graphite rod of 6 mm in diameter, about 50 200 A current may be consumed. Generally,...

Nanoshells from Liposomes

Another method followed for the synthesis of silica nanoshells involves the use ofliposomes as the templates. It was found that liposomes which are covered with silica are nonporous in nature. Hence, the exact properties of the lipid system are retained. This is important as liposomes are very sensitive to parameters such as pH and ionic strength, and also to the presence of organic solvents in the reaction mixture. Hence this kind of a system can find use in the case of drug delivery mainly...

Superlubricity

Hirano and Shinjo Ref. 11 in 1990 showed the origin of the ultra low friction of graphite between two incommensurable having an incommensurate contact geometry, which prevents collective slip-stick motion of all atoms in that contact graphite layers rotated with respect to each other. Since then, many research groups have used the Frictional Force Microscope to study this further. Recently, Martin Dienwiebel, et al. Refs 12, 13 have revealed that when two parallel surfaces slide over each other...

Nanotechnology in Diagnostic Applications

Research efforts are also being driven in the direction of using nanotechnology for molecular diagnostic purposes such as biological research, clinical diagnostics, detection of biomolecules and drug discovery. The focus of this section is on understanding the use of nanosystems for clinical diagnostics, especially in the early diagnosis of various forms of cancer. The main drawback of the laboratory tests currently used for the detection of cancer is that they try to identify visible changes...

Shipway N. E. Katz And I. Willner Chemphyschem 1 2000

Atomic and Nano Technology, IBM Research, http www.research.ibm.com atomic. 2. Langmuir, I.,J. Am. Chem. Soc., 39 1917 , p. 1848. 3. Blodgett, K.J. Am. Chem. Soc., 57 1935 , p. 1007. 4. Bigelow, WC., D.L. Pickett and WA. Zisman,J. Colloid Interface Sci., 1 1946 , p. 513. 5. Nuzzo, R.G. and D.L. Allara, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 105 1983 , p. 4481. 6. Ulaman, A., 1991 , An Introduction to Ultra-thin Organic Films from Langumir-Blodgtt to Self-Assembly, Academic Press, London. 7. Ulman, A., Chem....

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Protease inhibitors for patients suffering from HIV Although technologies have come and gone, it is important to assess what they have given us. The industrial age of the 1900s gave us advanced agricultural practices like the use of chemical fertilizers, radio, TV, air conditioning, car, jet planes, modern medicines, fabrics, etc. which can help the rich live like the kings of the past, and also enable paupers to become kings if they have an appropriate understanding of the markets. The...