Professional Makeup For Beginners
In the end, however, it is unlikely that cosmetic nanosurgery will completely supplant conventional cosmetics. After all, there is something to be said for being able to adjust one's makeup to one's mood or costume, and to change back and forth between different looks quickly. And it should be noted that the primary consumers of beauty preparations today are not the elderly, who might presumably need them most, but the already young and beautiful. Instead, it is likely that nanomachine techniques will take over the task of manufacturing cosmetics, a job for which programmable, self-reproducing nanomachines are ideally suited. The ability to manipulate individual atoms and promote or inhibit specific reactions could lead to all sorts of new fragrances and materials tailored to the cosmetic industry's needs. Some cosmetics, in fact, might consist of nanomachines. Who could resist a fingernail polish or eye shadow, for example, made of units that automatically aligned and spaced...
One of the few nanoparticle applications used in great quantity is found in cosmetics and sunscreens. Nano-enhanced cosmetics penetrate deep beneath the skin's surface layer. For example, one product uses a patented 200-nm nanotechnology process that contains vitamin A within a polymer capsule. The capsule, which acts like a sponge, soaks up and holds the cream inside until the outer shell dissolves under the skin. While companies like L'Oreal are patenting the use of dozens of different nanoparticle applications that deliver nutrients such as vitamin C into the skin, other cosmetics companies ( e.g. Dior, Estee Lauder, and Johnson & Johnson) are jumping into the game with their own nanotechnology-based products. Sunscreens are yet another nano-enhanced product. One sunscreen with SPF 30 uses Z-COTE , a high-purity nanocrystallline zinc oxide made by BASF as its main ingredient. Usually, regular zinc oxide provides broad-spectrum protection against UVA and UVB rays, with a white...
One of the things that people should keep in mind is that nanoparticles are small compared to a human cell, roughly 10 - 1000 times smaller. It has been proposed, and I stress the word proposed, that certain types of nanoparticles might be get into cells and do harmful things. I am not an expert in the biology, chemistry or toxicology but I know of experts in these fields that have researched particles to see if they are harmful. In my laboratory, we treat nanoparticles as though they are harmful even though a lot of the evidence shows that they are not. For instance, most people do not know that many cosmetics use certain types of nanoparticles and they have been used for many years without adverse effects.
The AEM's ultra-high performance provides scientists with extremely highresolution imaging capabilities (up to 0.1 nm). The AEM can also provide information on a material's atomic composition, molecular bonding, and electrical conductivity. With the AEM, researchers can get detailed information on nanomaterials' molecular makeup as well as data on specific properties and performance of things made from it.
The oldest application of surfactant solution may be its detergency (Culter and Kissa, 1987). First, decreased interfacial tension at the oil-water interface by the adsorption of surfactant will promote the detachment of oil from the solid substrates (glass, fiber, soil, etc.). Then, the oil will be solubilized within the micelle in nearby solution, which will be eventually removed from the solution, leaving the clean solid substrates behind. The well-known rollup mechanism and the force balance during the change of contact angle at the three phase contact regions are important. Additional major applications include cosmetics and pharmaceutical formulations, delivery vehicles, micellar liquid chromatography, micellar - enhanced ultrafiltration, rheology modifier, tertiary oil recovery, and so on. Readers will find details in excellent references Scamehorn and Harwell (1989) Morrow (1991).
Given the range of cosmetics using nanoparticulate metal oxides primarily for UV protection it is interesting to note a cosmetics product containing fullerene in the list. In this case the fullerene is claimed to have antioxidant properties. Carbon nanotubes have been used as a reinforcing component in a new baseball bat. Silver nanoparticles feature again, this time in socks where enhanced bonding of the 19 nm silver particles to the polyester fibres is claimed to provide enhanced and longer-lasting antimicrobial and antifungal performance. A novel chewing gum having chocolate flavour, which is apparently difficult to achieve, has been produced using nanoscale crystals'' of unknown chemistry to enhance the compatibility of the cocoa butter with the polymers that are used to give the gum elasticity. So-called self-cleaning windows and paint surfaces are also included in the top 10. These are based on photoactive titanium dioxide with the windows gaining a further benefit when it...
Questions about convergent technologies need to be addressed in a new way. The major issue is not a scientifically resolvable question about toxicity, but a fundamental question of where we want technology to take us. We should not leave such questions for the future but need to start talking now about what it means to be human, about whether society can choose a future, or will simply slide into one on the path dictated by technology. These questions do not make sense being framed in terms of industrial nanotechnology because technically oriented conversations about cosmetics and paint coatings obscure these more profound issues.
The microscope is compact, easy to use, is ideal for a wide variety of applications, and has superior resolution for higher magnification than an optical microscope. The TM-1000 provides a real alternative to optical microscopes, stereomicroscopes, and confocal laser scanning microscopes. It has applications for many areas including life science, food, cosmetics, health care, pharmaceutical, textiles, materials science, semiconductor, and education.
Nanotechnologies will certainly bring about specific modifications to existing regulations, and may one day either necessitate a new regulatory framework or even bring about a sea-change over the whole regulatory philosophy of chemicals production and use. One can readily see that nanoscience's fundamental and enabling character may well impact on a wide range of regulations in Europe, including health and safety, environment, medicines and medical devices, cosmetics and consumer goods, animal testing, design and disposal, the handling of accidents, consumer liability, labelling and so on.
The company, NaturalNano, is developing methods of processing the halloysite clay into nanotubes for use in commercial applications. The halloysite nanotubes can be used in such products as additives in polymers and plastics, electronic components, cosmetics, and absorbents.
The FDA is responsible for protecting the health of the public by assuring the safety, efficacy and security of human and veterinary drugs, biological products, medical devices, our nation's food supply, cosmetics, and products that emit radiation. The FDA is also responsible for advancing the public's health by helping to speed innovations that make medicines and foods more effective, safer and more affordable and by helping the public get the accurate, science-based information they need to use medicines and foods to improve their health. Towards this end, the FDA needs to proactively pursue those innovations that would result in a significant enhancement of public health. Therefore, it falls directly within the mandate of its mission for the FDA to understand and help to speed innovations that promise to improve many products that will be regulated by the FDA, such as those resulting from nanotechnology. However, the Food and Drug Administration is only one of several government...
An electronic nose (e-nose) is a device that identifies the specific components of an odor and analyzes its chemical makeup to identify it. In a sense it mimics the human nose, but it has far greater sensitivity to smell and can trace scents at the nanoparticle level. the food, beverage, and cosmetics industries. However, the e-nose is large and expensive to manufacture.
Massive numbers of genetic measurements are needed in order to identify and determine the activity of thousands of organisms in air, water, soils, and sediments. Enormous numbers of chemical measurements are also required in order to characterize the physical environment and to evaluate how biological and geochemical processes are interconnected. This task demands laboratory and field data that is spatially resolved at the submicron-scale at which heterogeneities are important, especially in interfacial regions where reactions are fastest. The use of robots in oceanographic monitoring studies is now standard, but this is only the beginning. Microscopic devices are needed to make in situ, fine-scale measurements of all parameters and to conduct in situ experiments (e.g., to assay microbial population makeup in algal blooms in the ocean or to determine which specific organism is responsible for biodegradation of an organic pollutant in a contaminated aquifer). These devices are also...
There is further discussion of artificial genes being designed as a package that might be offered to augment any embryo, in the hope of achieving longer life or higher intelligence or other properties. The new genetic makeup would then propagate, and be perpetuated in offspring of such super-human or post-human beings. Some see this genetic engineering possibility as a potential breakthrough, to raise the capabilities of the human race, an opportunity not to be missed, a bit like populating outer space. Others see this as a chance for grave injustices, not to mention terrible mistakes. It seems it cannot occur without seriously violating the perceived rights of privacy and continuity of many, religious groups for example, probably constituting a majority. The issues are such that they may be easily misrepresented and easily misunderstood, or not understood at all. These are socially explosive issues.
Improving semiconductors with nanotechnology Healing with nano Enhancing materials at the nano level Providing nano raw materials Designing software for nano-modeling Building testing equipment for nano-processes Changing the face of telecommunications Generating energy with nano Looking good with nanotech cosmetics
After seeing the potential of nanotechnology, it's easy to get euphoric. Everyone is looking for the next big thing to bring back economic good times, and nano is becoming the betting person's favorite. Although it is not yet clear which of the many technologies we've discussed will actually turn to gold (of any color), it is certain that many of them will have a substantial impact. The National Science Foundation estimates that the industry could grow from essentially nothing to 1 trillion worldwide in just fifteen years, a dizzying level of growth. In the end, nano would be a bigger economic force than software, cosmetics, drugs, or automobiles are in the United States today almost bigger than all of them combined.
Proctor & Gamble (www.pg.com) uses polymer and nanotechnology in cosmetics. Using this approach, they can improve how make-up adheres to the skin. Bionova (www.ibionova.com) is a company producing nano-skin technology that supposedly mimics the human body's use of bionutrients chemicals that assist in self-healing. Bionova uses short chain polypeptides and glyco-proteins that they claim can reduce wrinkles. They produce a line of skin-care products available to the general public. Interestingly, their discoveries came out of their founder's work with trauma patients and his observation of how the human body can act to heal in times of physical trauma. Sometimes the boundary between medicine and cosmetics can be pretty thin. A few other companies exploring the use of nanotechnology in cosmetics are 1 Jafra Cosmetics (www.jafra.com) 1 Ayurveda India (www.ayurvedaindia.org)
The cosmetics industry defends its use of nano-scale titanium dioxide in suntan lotions with own investigations demonstrating the innocuousness of titanium dioxide. The safety of nano-scale titanium dioxide was also confirmed by the Scientific Committee on Cosmetic Products and Non-food Products Intended for Consumers (SCCNFP), an EU body, in October 2000. The committee decided that along with its conventional counterpart, nano-scale titanium dioxide could also be included in the list of approved UV filters The SCCNFP is of the opinion that titanium dioxide is safe for use in cosmetic products at a maximum concentration of 25 in order to All in all, these research results suggest that nano-structured titanium dioxide as used in the cosmetics industry does not penetrate into the deeper layers when used on healthy skin and that possible negative effects on the cells do not represent a problem of the first priority. Regarding potential effects within the individual environmental...
Recently, attempts have also been made towards developing biodegradable polymeric nanoparticles as potential drug delivery devices. In addition to the inherent property of reduced cytotoxicity, biodegradable polymeric nanoparticles have been found to be extremely effective in controlled and targeted drug release, even through administration is oral (Refs 8, 14). The phenomenon of zero-order kinetics has been observed predominantly for polymeric nanoparticles. Additionally, various research groups have also established the use of polymeric nanoparticles for nasal (Ref. 15) and ophthalmic delivery of drugs (Refs 16, 17). This group ofnanoparticles has also shown prominence for use in neuro-disorders, in which case a large number of other drugs fail (Refs 18, 19). Furthermore, nanosize carriers of vitamin molecules such as vitamin A and E, have potential applications in dermatology and cosmetics (Refs 20, 21).
The Task Force concluded that the FDA's authorities are generally comprehensive for products subject to pre-market authorization requirements, such as drugs, biological products, devices, and food and color additives, and that these authorities give the FDA the ability to obtain detailed scientific information needed to review the safety and, as appropriate, effectiveness of products For products not subject to pre-market authorization requirements, such as dietary supplements, cosmetics, and food ingredients that are generally recognized as safe (GRAS), manufacturers are generally not required to submit data to the FDA prior to marketing, and the FDA's oversight capacity is less comprehensive
Titanium dioxide belongs to the group of physical light protective filters (also called inorganic or mineral filters). These are metal oxides, which filter the UV light predominantly by reflection and diffusion. Major representatives are TiO2 and ZnO. They are biologically and chemically stable and very rarely cause irritations and phototoxic or photo-allergic reactions. With their high capacity to absorb ultraviolet radiation, nano-scale titanium dioxide and zinc oxide are ideal for use in cosmetics.
These are just some of the many potential uses of nanotechnology related to food. In the United States, the regulation of food is handled by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), which is also responsible for the regulation of several other kinds of products, including drugs, certain medical devices, various biologics such as vaccines and blood products, animal feed and drugs, cosmetics, and some products that emit radiation such as cellular telephones, lasers, and the like. While the introductory description earlier ocuses primarily on food products, it is illustrative of another approach to regulation to consider all of the products regulated by the FDA collectively.
Other recommendations were seen as likely to be more contentious. With products such as cosmetics, sun screens and food additives in mind, the Working Group recommended that 'ingredients in the form of nano-particles undergo a full safety assessment . . . before they are permitted for use in products that manufacturers publish details of the methodologies used in assessing the safety of products containing nanoparticles and that the ingredients lists of consumer products should identify the fact that manufactured nanoparticulate material has been added'. This obviously supports the EU's general approach to regulation and disclosure rather than that used in the USA, but it would go further and put regulation of cosmetics containing nanomaterials on a basis approaching that applied to pharmaceuticals.
People using skin preparations such as cosmetics and sun-screens are subject to dermal exposure. Some sun-screens contain titanium dioxide nanoparticles. It is by no means firmly established that they do reduce risks of skin cancer. Furthermore, while there is evidence that nanoparticles cannot penetrate healthy skin, it is not certain that they cannot penetrate lesions (such as areas of skin already damaged by sunburn). The likely impact of ingested nanomaterials is unknown (Chapter 14), but is likely to be less serious than respiratory exposure and is probably less of a concern than dermal exposure. Once in the body, it is possible that nanoparticles could cause damage at the neural and cellular level, possibly even penetrating into the brain (see Royal Society and Royal Academy of Engineering, 2004) although the implications of this penetration are unknown.
In the future, nanotechnology will be extensively deployed as a cross-sectional technology and therefore touch the most varied spheres of regulation, from occupational safety and health to pharmaceutical and cosmetics regulation, environmental protection policies, and more. Thus an extensive need for adaptation of these regulations will arise. The top priority according to those experts consulted is above all the area of occupational safety and health.
That reports alarming levels of toxicity of a particular nanoparticle. On other days you find research papers that report no apparent risk whatsoever with the same nanomaterials. This has become quite a familiar pattern for regular readers of nanoscience and nanotechnology literature. The cosmetics industry, for instance, claims its products and the nanoparticles in them are perfectly safe environmental groups contend that nanomaterials are inherently risky and that rigorous testing is needed before large-scale commercialization of nano-products can happen some even call for a complete moratorium on nanoma-terial production. The result is a situation that is confusing not only for lay people but also for industry, researchers, and the journalists who cover the field.
On the negative side, nanotechnology will cumulatively be appropriated by the existing forces of consumer production, advertising and marketing. For example, if nanotechniques are incorporated into existing built-in obsolescence (or 'disposable') consumer goods, then there is no real advance. Such techniques will simply be grafted onto current consumption patterns, possibly consolidating and deepening them. Thus major development efforts in nano-technological applications at the moment (such as nano-encapsulation techniques) include cosmetics, skin creams and perfumes. Here, one may readily understand the socio-economic context in which nanotechnology is emerging if one makes some comparisons. Recent reports on annual expenditure on make-up show that about US 18 billion is being spent, while a reasonable estimate of the cost of eliminating global hunger and malnutrition is about US 19 billion needed in additional annual investment. Similarly, US 15 billion goes annually on perfumes,...
Recognition of the potential for using nanoscale materials and operations is usually dated to a lecture by Richard Feynman (1959) while the term 'nanotechnology' was coined later (Taniguchi, 1974) to describe precision engineering of materials at the nanometre scale. Nanomaterials are already in use in some consumer products, specifically cosmetics and sun-screens. But nano-technology has been held up as offering the potential to revolutionize a wide range of economic activities see Table 12.1. Several of the more immediate possible applications lie in the process and energy sectors. The potential developments in manufacturing arise from the convergence of top-down processes such as ultra-precision machining and lithography with bottom-up processes based on chemicals and biochemicals (Whatmore, 2001) for example through a materials revolution combining synthesis and smart fabrication. In the longer term, many of the more interesting possible applications lie in bio-nanotechnology and...
Since the ancient civilizations of Egypt, Greece, and China, people have used a variety of natural polymeric materials as stabilizers for their paints, inks, and foods. Increased colloidal stability in these systems by the action of the polymers, mainly by steric and depletion forces, was one of the keys of their success. This has been an important issue for decades whenever there has been a great need to control coagulation, emulsification, and flocculation, which widely appears in traditional colloid science and related industries, such as food, petroleum, cosmetics, and pharmaceuticals, as well as in the recent development of environmental issues and nanoparticle- and nanomaterial-related processing and manufacturing.
The U S Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulates a wide range of products under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (FFDCA), including foods, cosmetics, drugs, devices, and veterinary products, some of which may utilize nano-technology or contain nanomaterials The FDA has not established its own formal definition of nanotechnology, although the FDA participated in the development of the NNI definition of nanotechnology, as did many other agencies . Using that definition, nanotechnology relevant to the FDA might include research and technology development that both satisfies the NNI definition and relates to a product regulated by the FDA
Recently, much interest has been generated by colloidal drug delivery systems such as nanocapsules because of the possibilities for controlled release, increased drug efficacy, and reduced toxicity after parenteral administration. Nano-capsules can be formulated into a variety of useful dosage forms including oral liquid suspensions, lotions, creams, ointments, powders, capsules, tablets, and injections. Nano-encapsulation has been applied to solve problems in the development of pharmaceutical dosage forms as well as in cosmetics for several purposes. These include conversion of liquids to solids, separation of incompatible components in a dosage form, taste masking, reduction of gastrointestinal irritation, protection of the core materials against atmospheric deterioration, enhancement of stability, and controlled release of active ingredients.
Exclusively carbon-based molecular forms, fullerenes and carbon nanotubes, discovered in the mid-1980s and early 1990s immediately provoked a large interest for applications in a variety of fields, ranging from nanotechnology to the cosmetics industry. It is, however, seldom that both of these structures have found a simultaneous application, as is the case of efficient electron field emitters. Carbon nanotubes have been the subject of extensive investigation in the recent years 1-11 due to their unique mechanical and electronic properties. Of particular interest for the work reported here are the electronic and field emission properties of such materials. Electron emission from nanotubes has been investigated by a number of groups throughout the world 5-8, 11-13 , but a complete understanding of the emission mechanism is still lacking. Such a lack of understanding has not prevented the actual fabrication and test of field emission displays (FEDs) using nanotubes 14 . In order to...
It has been slightly over ten years since the development of a way to produce macroscopic quantities of fullerene, and the related discovery of fullerene nanotubes. As a result, over 1500 worldwide patents have been filed for the production and applications of these new materials. These applications are so wide ranging that they extend across different industries with products from additives to polymers, photoconductors, photo-resists, and bio-active agents to cosmetics. MER Corporation in Tucson, Arizona joined the ranks of fullerene enthusiasts at the beginning of its discovery by immediately licensing the Huffman-Kratschmer patents. While we are widely recognized as a producer of fullerene and nanotubes, MER has also been active in developing applications for fullerenes and nano-tubes. The different applications investigated by MER will be reviewed in subsequent chapters. The overriding factor for the success of any of these applications, however, is the price of fullerenes....
Modified forms of titanium dioxide have also found markets. Oxonica has developed and is selling a manganese-doped titanium dioxide that exhibits significantly enhanced UVA absorption and minimises the generation of free radicals resulting from the absorption of UV light by the titanium dioxide.47 49 This product is already being used commercially in sunscreens and cosmetics and is being evaluated for applications in coatings and plastics. 3.4.3 Aluminium Oxide. Nanoparticulate aluminium oxide has been produced in platelet form and has found use in cosmetics. The benefits are achieved through a uniform platelet morphology that provides superior transparency and soft focus properties.57 Fumed silica has a chain-like particle morphology. In liquids, the chains bond together via weak hydrogen bonds forming a three-dimensional network, trapping liquid and effectively increasing viscosity. The effect of the fumed silica can be negated by the application of a shear force, e.g. by mixing or...
This is the first online inventory of nanotechnology consumer products and contains some 212 manufacturer-identified nanoproducts. The inventory can be accessed online at www.nanoproject.org consumerproducts and at least some of the products and applications described here are listed in this inventory. Others include reinforced tennis, squash and badminton racquets containing carbon nanotubes, cultured diamonds, non dirtying clothes, razors, automotive and other coatings, cosmetics, microprocessors, golf balls, silver colloids and photographic paper.
FDA approval is a long and costly process, involving extensive testing for both safety and efficacy. This process would be undertaken primarily by drug companies, not cosmetic manufacturers, since externally applied cosmetics need to be certified only for safety. We would have no problem, of course, if we had self-reproducing cell-repair nanomachines to work with. They could monitor the internal workings of each cell in a growing population, reproducing in synchrony with the cell they inhabit, and guide the development of its descendants along predetermined pathways to produce any desired tissue component. Just for the testing of cosmetics alone, such technology could grow acres of human skin,4 complete with nerve endings, capillaries, hair follicles, sweat glands, and even subcutaneous musculature and fat cells thriving under glass in racks of oversized Petri dishes in a laboratory. (It would also be important to cultivate mucous membranes, since these are much more sensitive to many...
Some clay nanoparticles are combined with other materials to form nanocom-posites. These nano-sized clay particles are made up of montmorillonite (a soft silicate clay that expands when it absorbs liquids) and used to color paper and cosmetics. These types of modified clays are also used to make nanocomposites.
Microcapsule research is one of the most active areas in materials nanotechnology. Many companies are developing hollow containers for everything from drug delivery and imaging markers to sunscreens, cosmetics, and perfumes. This ability to encapsulate (enclose) molecular payloads is important to new medical and industrial applications.
Although the nanotechnology industry is in a nascent stage, rapid advancements and a streamlined road map of progress ensure that the future is quite promising. The realization of this industry's potential will have revolutionary and compelling impacts upon humankind. For example, the fruition of rapid DNA screening and diagnosis modalities will open the gateway to designing custom therapeutics tailored to individuals based on their genetic makeup. An achievement of this magnitude would serve dual roles. First, nanotechnology would be cemented as the visionary industry for the next millennium. Second, the true benefits for humankind enabled by the maturation of this technology will have been realized.
Others have viewed the fine structure of cytoplasm and described it in different terms. Among these are Peter Satir (1984) of Albert Einstein University whose work has focused on the protein makeup and functional organization of the MTL, or cytomatrix. Satir sees a functional integration of the cytomatrix, noting that protein-protein interactions have geometrical as well as biochemical and biophysical consequences. Certain interactions occur only at the ends of cytoskeletal polymers, others require or produce parallel arrangements of such elements by interacting only with their lateral surfaces, and still others may require orthogonal arrangements. In concert with centrioles, MTOC, and MT, cytoplasmic structures appear and function where and when needed.
Unquestionably, nanoparticles possess some of the most potent biological activities ever described. The potential benefits of nanotechnology are therefore immense. However, these attributes make it even more obligatory that the risks inherent in the use of such potent biofactors, particularly in foods, aerosols, cosmetics and skin lotions creams, must be rigorously assessed before their commercialization. Accordingly, and as first step, a nutritional protocol is presented in this chapter for the safety testing of the nanoparticles that have already been or are likely to be incorporated in future into human foods even though, judging by the near absence of published articles in peer-reviewed journals, this was apparently done without appropriate safety testing.
The public television stations market their programs as TV worth watching. Nanotechnology is science engineering worth watching. Nanotechnology progress has the potential to be huge for two reasons. First, it is expected to provide 1 trillion in revenues by 2015. Second, it will impact virtually everything from personal items (e.g., cosmetics, sunscreen, and clothing) and medical care (wound healing and cell targeting) to energy transmission and fuel cell materials.
Considering the ever-changing nanotechnology development discussion, it is important that we look at which areas of industry will be affected first. Mihail Roco, the NSF senior advisor for nanotechnology, believes that early payoffs will come in computing and pharmaceuticals, whereas others believe that medicine will be the big money market. Among the 400 nanotech products on the market today, most are nanocomposite cosmetics, coatings, textiles, sensors, and displays. They are found in everything from tennis racquets and balls to car bumpers, and from spray-on sunscreen to stain-proof trousers and skirts.
Beyond computers, golf clubs, and cosmetics, some nanomaterial applications (like super strong armor) are fairly far out in terms of their development time schedule. There's even talk of building a space elevator (i.e., a huge ladder into space that could drop off rockets and lift payloads and people into various Earth orbits). Currently, no engineering material has the strength to support a structure of such height.
Nanoparticle use in cosmetics (especially sunscreen) is widespread, with the primary materials being nanoscale TiO2 and ZnO. The primary barrier to absorption through the skin is physical the outer layer of the epidermis, which contains mostly dead skin cells. There is less information about dermal toxicity nanoparticles than about other types, and specific skin conditions may affect greatly the penetration of nanoparticles however, the primary toxic mechanism appears to be generation of ROS. Whether the nanoparticles penetrate the epidermis depends on a number of factors. Movement of the skin or damaged skin can allow the penetration of microscale beads to the dermis and may allow movement to regional lymph nodes, where chemical reactions with proteins can affect the autoimmune system 96,97 . There is evidence that submicron particles penetrate the skin shallowly and may penetrate more deeply via hair follicles 98,99 . Smaller particles may penetrate far...
Solid lipid nanoparticles possess a solid matrix composed of physiological lipids or lipoids with a mean diameter in the range of approximately 50 to 1000 nm. Solid lipid nano-particles are an alternative particulate drug carrier to polymeric nanoparticles, emulsions, and liposomes 538-540 . They combine advantages of emulsions, liposomes, and polymeric particles. Similar to emulsions and liposomes, they are composed of physiological and well-tolerated substances and can be produced on an industrial scale 541-543 . The general features of solid lipid nanoparticles and their production techniques were presented 541 . The incorporation of lipophilic, hydrophilic and insoluble drugs was presented, and incorporation rates and loading capacity were discussed 542 . Long-term stability, lyophilization, spray-drying, and possible applications in cosmetics and pharmaceutics were dealt with 543 .
Government-supported academic researchers frequently ignore many economically important industries, in part because those industries traditionally have not involved advanced technology but also perhaps because they were not perceived as serious fields. Among these are clothing fashions, jewelry, and cosmetics. Stereotypes aside, these are multibillion dollar industries that could benefit from the new opportunities afforded by convergent technologies. In social life, physical attractiveness is very important. Anything that enhances a person's beauty or dignity improves that individual's performance in relations with other people. Convergence of nanotechnology and biotechnology with cognitive science could produce new kinds of cosmetics that change with the user's moods, enhancing the person's emotional expressiveness. Components of wearable computers could be packaged in scintillating jewelry, automatically communicating thoughts and feelings between people who are metaphorically and...
Nanocapsules are designed to have a therapeutic action to release drugs in the right place or to have functionality to attack and reduce cancerous cells. Although many applications have not been investigated yet, current developments are becoming increasingly more useful in the field of medicine. Nanocapsules have been intensively studied not only because of the possibilities for controlled release, but also because of increased drug efficacy and reduced toxicity after parenteral administration. The nanocapsules have been formulated into a variety of useful dosage forms including oral liquid suspensions, lotions, creams, ointments, powders, capsules, tablets, and injections. Nanoencapsulation has been applied to solve problems in the development of pharmaceutical dosage forms as well as in cosmetics for several purposes including conversion of liquids to solids, separation of incompatible components in a dosage form, taste-masking, reduction of gastrointestinal irritation, protection...
Normal micelles, which have only short-range order, form spontaneously when the amphiphiles are added to water. The liquid crystalline phases, which exhibit long-range order, like lamellar (cubic) and normal hexagonal phases, do not disperse spontaneously. When the lamellar phase is diluted with excess aqueous phase, it converts into spherical liposomes (Fig. 1), 2 which are widespread carriers for drugs, cosmetics, and many other types of actives. 19 Because of the presence of the aqueous core and the hydrophobic lipid bilayers, liposomes can accommodate both hydrophilic and hydrophobic actives. The liposomes can be constructed with widely different physical structures, lipid composition, and surface properties, thus enabling a great deal of control over entrapment and release of their contents.
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