Electromagnetic Radiation and Human Health

EMF Protection

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How To Beat Electrical Sensitivity Overview

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Structure Transfer by Electromagnetic Radiation

The energy required for bond cleavage can be provided as photons. To achieve activation energies of about 1 eV, photons of wavelength 1.2 im and below are needed. This energetic reason limits the range of the electromagnetic spectrum that is usable in micro- and nanostructure technology to lower wavelengths. For particularly stable bonds, the required energies reach the range of 1 MJ mol-1. Hence light from the far UV into the near vacuum UV is applied. Besides the energetic factor, the wave character of light limits the application of electromagnetic waves for structure generation in nanotechnology. When photons are applied as a free beam or by a projecting optical system, diffraction limits the local resolution. A special method of direct-writing structure generation utilizes focused atom beams in standing electromagnetic waves. The standing wave acts as a periodic lens for the beam, so that the beam is projected with a period of half the wavelength onto a substrate with a...

Appendix A Microwave Measurements Of e AND

For the purposes of this review it is not necessary to go into the details of the various ingenious schemes that have been developed over the last decades for investigations of the permittivity and permeability of materials. We will concentrate our discussion on measuring e and having special relevance to isotropic materials in the microwave region of the electromagnetic spectrum. Research into the characterization of the permittivity and permeability tensors in dielectric and magnetic heterostructures having anisotropy is still very new and is in its developing stage 96 . Different experimental techniques and geometries measure different components of these tensors for these topics, the reader is referred, for example, to 47 .

Applications In Nanoscience

The potential of scanning near-field optical microscopy for imaging molecular systems has been recognized by two groups in 1986 37, 38 . However, the first observation of single molecules using optical near-field technique came 7 years later 39 . In this pioneering experiment, single carbocyanine DiIC12 dye molecules were embedded in a polymer matrix and dispersed on a glass substrate. A near-field probe made from an aluminum-coated glass fiber optically excited the molecules. The probe was raster scanned over the sample plane. The fluorescence of individual molecules was collected by a large numerical aperture objective to ensure high collection efficiency. In this remarkable paper, the authors could determine the orientation ofthe absorption dipole moment of each molecule by recording the spatial variation of the fluorescence as the aperture moved over the molecules. A molecule is excited only if a component of the optical electric field is polarized along its transition dipole...

Vacuum Reference Wave

Great care should always be taken to assess the effect on the reference wave of long-range electromagnetic fields that may extend outside the sample 40-42 . Both the object wave and the reference wave may then be affected by the field from the sample. The observed phase image may be altered from one that would be recorded using a perfect reference wave, as illustrated in Figure 4 for simulations of a small magnetic bar. Figure 4a shows the phase image that would be recorded using a perfect reference wave, while Figure 4b shows the effect of using a reference wave that is modulated by the long-range magnetic field from the object 43 . Although a possible numerical method for correcting experimental phase images for this effect has been suggested 44 , care should in general be taken both to avoid using a perturbed reference wave in the first place and to recognize its presence if it cannot be avoided.

Commercialization Scope

Light can carry energy only in specific amounts, proportional to the frequency, as though it came in packets. The term quanta was given to these discrete packets of electromagnetic energy by Max Planck 38 . c. Smallest physical units into which something can be partitioned, according to the laws of quantum mechanics. For example, photons are the quanta of the electromagnetic field 38 . d. Each particle is surrounded by a field for each of the kinds of charges it carries, such as an electromagnetic field if it has electric charge. In the quantum theory, the field is described as made up of particles that are the quanta of the field. More loosely, the smallest amount of something that can exist 38 .

Optical Resonances of Metallic Bowtie Nanoantennas

Because localized plasmon resonances are extremely dependent on geometry and material properties, we investigated the spectral scattering behavior of bowtie nanoan-tennas in detail, both experimentally (Fromm et al. 2004) and theoretically (Sundaramurthy et al. 2005) using finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) calculations of the local electromagnetic field. Single bowtie scattering spectra were measured experimentally as a function of gap size with far-field total internal reflection (TIR) microscopy. This method has the advantage that the excitation beam is trapped in the evanescent field until scattered toward the detector by the bowtie. The excitation light was broadband and s-polarized so that the axis of each bowtie was carefully oriented parallel to the polarization axis. (The perpendicular polarization leads to unremarkable results, similar to the scattering from isolated triangles (Fromm et al. 2004)).

Fabrication Of Cellular Constructs

With controlled hydrogel architecture. Uncrosslinked polymer and cells were then rinsed away and additional domains could be photopatterned with different cell types, polymer formulations, and exposure patterns. During each exposure cycle, the newly crosslinked polymer fused with existing hydrogel domains. Furthermore, 3-D multilayer constructs with complex internal structure were formed by increasing the height of the photocrosslinking chamber between exposure steps. In this manner, a three layered hydrogel construct was fabricated with raised protrusions containing a high cell density (Fig. 2.8b). To date, microstructure feature size has approached 50 m, thus enabling the patterning of cells on the scale of functional tissue units. While these structures contain randomly dispersed cells, Albrecht et al. have developed a complimentary technology capable of defining the organization of encapsulated cells within a hydrogel to a resolution of < 10 m 57, 58 . This method utilizes...

Local Enhancement of the Optical Fields Near the Nanoantenna

It had previously proven difficult to directly measure the electromagnetic fields in the gaps between plasmonically coupled structures because the incident pumping field extends over a much larger (diffraction-limited) area and tends to leak into the detector. To address this, we have found it useful to use two-photon effects that only appreciably occur in the regions where the optical fields are very strong. Using this approach, we have experimentally determined (Schuck et al. 2005a) the optical intensity enhancement values for the fields in the metal of these structures, which closely approximate the fields outside the metal near the surface.

Vibrational Spectroscopies

The infrared spectrum is measured by illuminating the sample with a polychromatic infrared light and by measuring the absorption of the sample. Two kinds of methodologies are normally used, one by a dispersive infrared spectrometer and another by using the Fourier transformation of the interferogram resulting from the interference of two light beams with different path lengths. The latter technique called FT-IR is the most common analytical method used these days. The Raman spectrum is measured by analyzing the scattered light coming from the sample. The illuminating light is generally in the visible region of the electromagnetic spectrum, which allows for focusing to a few hundreds of nanometers. If the light is focused on a sample using a SNOM aperture, it is possible to illuminate a single nano object and the Raman spectral measurement of this object becomes possible. The other illumination source used for vibrational spectroscopy, namely electrons, can be focused on the sample at...

Intensities in Xray Scattering

Intensities are important in X-ray analysis for determining unknown crystal structures and quantitative phase analysis. X-rays are electromagnetic waves and can interact with electrons, thus making them vibrate. The vibrating charge will emit electromagnetic radiation which is in phase (coherent) with the incident X-ray. Coherent scattering is similar to elastic collision and the wavelength of the X-ray is not changed. The intensity of the radiation scattered can be given by the Thomson equation, Ip a 1 2(1 + cos2 29), where Ip is the scattered beam intensity at point p, and 29 is the angle between the incident and the

Potential Biomedical Applications Of Polymer Nanostructures

For smaller feature sizes (down to one micron or less), photolithographic methods, e-beam lithography, or scanning probe lithography (e.g. AFM dip pen lithography 44 ) are often employed (i.e. surface machining). Here, a liquid photoresist is spin-coated or a self-assembly monolayer (SAM) is deposited on a galvanic starting layer. The mi-cro nanofeatures are formed after radiation exposure through a photomask and development or direct e-beam or scanning probe writing. Figure 3.3 shows a schematic of these surface machining methods. For prototyping, this photoresist structure can serve as a device itself or be used as a mold (called photoresist mold) in low temperature and low pressure molding processes. More generally, this structure is either used directly for electroplating or for wet dry etching of silicon (which subsequently is electroplated) 17 . Both technologies yield a metal tool, usually nickel or nickel-cobalt. For features with a low aspect ratio (defined as the ratio of...

Polymer Surface Modification

Common surface modification techniques used on polymer substrates include treatments by blending, coating, surface segregation, layer by layer electrostatic interaction, radiation of electromagnetic waves, electron beam, ion beam 25,26 or atom beams 27 , corona or plasma treatment 28-30 , chemical vapor deposition (CVD), gas oxidation, metallization, chemical modifications using wet-treatment and surface grafting polymerization 31,32 , and so on. In recent years, many advances have been made in developing surface treatments to alter the chemical and physical properties of polymer surfaces and progress in recent years has been summarized by many reviews 19,33,34 .

A brief intro to quantum physics

The first laws of quantum physics dealt with energy quantization. They were discovered in studies of the electromagnetic radiation field by Planck and Einstein in 1900 and 1905, respectively. A new universal constant, Planck's constant h, was introduced in physics in addition to other constants like the speed of light, c, the gravitation constant, G, and the charge quantum, e. The 1998 CODATA values1 for h and h h 2n are Historically, as indicated, the particle-wave duality was first realized for the electromagnetic field. It is interesting to note that right from the beginning when the first theories of the nature of light was proposed in the 17th century, it was debated whether light were particles (corpuscles), as claimend by Newton, or waves, as claimed by Huygens. The debate appeared to end in the beginning of the 19th century with Young's famous double-slit interference experiments that demonstrated that light were waves. With Maxwell's theory (1873) and Hertz's experiments...

Plasma Induced Graft CoPolymerization

Plasma is the fourth state of material and is composed of electrons, ions, free radicals, atoms, and molecules. There are two subdivisions for plasma thermal equilibrium and nonthermal equilibrium plasma. For current use on polymers, the subdivision of nonthermal equilibrium is frequently used, which constitutes different plasma species having different temperatures. More precisely, the electrons usually have much higher temperature than the heavier particles (ions, atoms, molecules). In a plasma, important parameters include average electron temperature, ranging from 1 to 10 eV, electron density, varying from 109 to 1012 cm-3, and degree of ionization, lying between 10-6 to 0.3 27 . It is notable that, in plasma, compared to the high temperature of the electron, heavy particles have temperature around ambient condition (300 K or 0.025 eV) 28 . This heavy particle temperature is obviously suitable for treating many temperature-sensitive polymers, which will otherwise undergo...

Layer Deposition from the Gas Phase

If the surface mobility of a particle is very low, nearly every contact with a surface atom leads to a bond. So small inhomogeneities and surface roughness is enhanced in the process of further layer deposition. Dendritic structures are observed, and at a certain density sponge-like structure are observed. This process requires low deposition temperatures. So thin layers of nanoporous materials can be prepared (Fig. 19a). Depending on the material and deposition conditions, a wide pore width distribution ranging from atomic dimensions (0.1 nm) up to micrometers is observed. Such layers are for example catalytically active surfaces, chemical absorption layers, or absorption layers for electromagnetic radiation.

Nanoantennas Lighting up Molecules

In conventional electronics, the interconnection between locally stored and radiated signals, for example radio broadcasts, is formed by antennas. Antennas play a key role in our modern wireless society. The electromagnetic waves sent and received by antennas are the messages that enable communication between electronics. Antennas with a wide variety of sizes make it possible for us to receive radio broadcasts, watch television, and talk to others using cellphones. For effective communication, the antenna needs to direct signals towards their intended target and, conversely, collect signals from a desired source.

Nanoelectronics and Sensors

CNTs are also shown to have a strong electromechanical coupling in recent TB 134 and ab initio simulations 135 . As the cross section of (8,0) SWNT is flattened up to 40 , the bandgap of the nanotube decreases from 0.57 eV and disappears at 25 deformation. As the deformation further increases to 40 , the bandgap reopens and reaches 0.45 eV. Similarly, the changes in the electronic band gap as function of axial compression, tensile stretch, and torsional deformations have been investigated in detail with modeling and simulation-based approaches 136 . This strong dependence of SWNT band structure on the mechanical deformation can be applied to develop nanoscale mechanical sensors. Furthermore, mechanical deformation can be used to control the electronic excitation by static electric fields or electromagnetic waves. A recent ab initio study of polarons in SWNTs shows that the electron-hole pair creation can induce a tube-length change leading to optical actuation mechanism of nanotube...

Velocity in Periodic Nanostructures

In order to avoid the problems involved with the dispersive nature of the electron's wavepacket and the invasive measuring process in QM, it was easier to look at a gaussian wavepacket of classical electromagnetic waves and to try to measure the delay time at a barrier. Indeed, in most of the past tunnelling experiments, instead of electrons, electromagnetic waves were used 8, 23 , to exclude any electronic interaction with the tunnelling barrier. The analogy between the time-independent forms of the Schrodinger and the Maxwell equations confronts us again with Hartman's case the possibility of achieving extremely high tunnelling velocities, even superluminal velocities. Thus looking back, it was not so surprising that the actual discussion on superluminal speed started almost at the same time with the series of microwaves experiments by transmission through systems consisting of undersized waveguides 7, 8, 23-27 . Steinberg et al. 9 found superlu-minal velocities for electromagnetic...

Why Nanoscience is Relevant to the Solar Energy Industry

Chemistry-enabled nanotechnology here resolves the biggest problem in achieving the ability to rectify electromagnetic waves at the high frequency range of visible and IR radiation. Although infrared rays create an alternating current in the nanoantenna, in fact, the frequency of the current switches back and forth ten thousand billion times a second, much too fast for electrical appliances, which operate on currents that oscillate only 60 times a second. Indeed, the desired length and diameter of the carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are achieved by accurate chemical control of the growth parameters. New nanochemistry strategies for the chemical synthesis of nanotubes developed in the early 2000s are therefore crucial to

Optical Coherence Tomography

Since nanoshells have highly tunable optical properties, they can be designed either to absorb or scatter light at wavelengths across most of the visible and infrared regions of the electromagnetic spectrum (Figures 6-9 and 6-10). In vitro studies have been done using dark field microscopy (which is sensitive only to scattered light). Studies have been done using carcinoma cells with markers (proteins, antibodies, and so on) on their surface. When cells were combined with antibody bonded nanoshells that recognized tumor markers, the dark field cancer cells were easily seen.

Kramers Kronig Relations

As it has just been shown, the concept of a complex time in the theory of the traversal time problem of electrons and electromagnetic waves (EMWs) has arisen in many approaches 4, 11, 37, 65 . In 37 was obtained, with the Faraday rotation scheme, a very similar result to Eq. (25) for the characteristic interaction time t of an EMW. The Faraday rotation in the finite system, which is our magnetic clock, plays for light the same role as the Larmor precession for electrons 34, 36 . The emerging EMW is elliptically polarized and the major axis of the ellipse is rotated with respect to the original direction of polarization. All relevant information about both the angle of rotation and the degree of ellipticity is contained in a complex angle whose real part corresponds to the Faraday rotation, and whose imaginary part corresponds to the degree of ellipticity. This motivated us to associate a complex interaction time of the light in the region with magnetic field which can be written in...

Group Transfer Processes

The extreme-UV range (EUV lithography) is under discussion as an alternative mass production technology at these dimensions. Group transfer processes are also possible with very short electromagnetic radiation, such as X-ray, and with particle beams. Hence dimensions in the medium and lower nanometer range can be addressed (cf. Section 4.3). However, owing to the requirements of highly sophisticated equipment and an extraordinary mask technology, they are only applied in special applications. One such application is the X-ray deep lithography for structures with high aspect ratio, e. g., in the LIGA process (lithography with ionizing radiation and galva

Applications Of Carbon Nanotubes

The high electrical conductivity of carbon nanotubes means that they will be poor transmitters of electromagnetic energy. A plastic composite of carbon nanotubes could provide lightweight shielding material for electromagnetic radiation. This is a matter of much concern to the military, which is developing a highly digitized batdefield for command, control, and communication. The computers and electronic devices that are a part of this system need to be protected from weapons that emit electromagnetic pulses.

Surface Brillouin Spectroscopy

In the bulk of a material, the interaction between acoustic waves and electromagnetic waves occurs by the elasto-optic effect, that is, the dynamical modulation of the electrical susceptibility by the strain field of the acoustic wave. At a surface, interaction also occurs by the ripple effect, that is, the dynamical modulation of the surface geometry due to the acoustic wave. The ripple mechanism is the only one in metallic materials, and is however typically dominant in SBS, since the strain field of SAWs is confined in the vicinity of the surface.

Impact of Environments on MEMS Performance

This section focuses on adverse effects due to environmental factors on MEMS device performance during the curing and encapsulation processes. Most ofthe properties of metals, alloys, substrates, and semiconductors are specified at normal temperature and pressure (NTP). Mechanical, electrical, dielectric, and thermal properties of the materials used in MEMS and NT devices are most likely to be affected by temperature, pressure, chemicals, toxicity, and electromagnetic environments. It is important to point out that the one-level package provides mechanical and environmental protection to MEMS devices it holds, with no degradation in performance under NTP conditions. A zero-level package for a MEMS device using small cavity volume with stable gas pressure offers optimum performance and reliability.

Related Molecular Structures

Is minimized by variations in U, the internal energy. The proposed molecules rely on the minimization of the Gibbs free energy by variations in the entropy, S, while the energies and chemical bonds (internal energy U) are left unchanged. The entropy functional units can be specifically controlled by external parameters such as temperature, light, or electromagnetic fields. Functional behavior such as controlled transition from linear chain to ring polymer, swelling de-swelling, switching, and molecular motion could be achieved. One such example provided describes a polymer ring along which a number of slip links are placed. Within each of the fringe loops, additional sliding rings are placed. If the sliding rings are immobile, the central loop consumes almost the entire length of the polymer. However, if the sliding rings are free to move, large fringe loops are entropically favored and the central loop will be drastically smaller.

Nearfield Interaction

An important strategy for understanding natural and artificial materials is to study the interaction of the material with electromagnetic fields. The properties of metals, semiconductors, and dielectrics at low frequency have been a fruitful area of investigation. The first experiments were transmission experiments done in the far-field region from source, and typically required that the sample size be of the scale of the Electromagnetic waves are created by time-varying currents and charges. Their interactions with materials obey Maxwell's equations supplemented with boundary conditions 37 . Electromagnetic waves can be guided by structures (transmission lines) or propagate in free space. Near-field behavior is most clearly seen surrounding small electric dipoles as shown in Fig. 5.1. The near-field consists of the reactive near-field, also known as the quasi-static near-field, and the radiating near-field also known as the Fresnel zone. In the quasi-static near-field the fields...

Photonic Crystal Fibers

The focus of telecommunications is transmitting pulses of light at high signaling rates and in an efficient manner. Optical fibers and most microstructured optical fibers have relied on the transparency of silica to provide low transmission losses. Research aimed at reducing the power needed to transmit light signals over long spans of optical fiber has studied the manufacturing of fiber cables utilizing photonic crystal, which, as noted, is an artificial patterned structure consisting of a mix of materials or a material and air 286 . Photonic bandgap structures are periodic dielectric structures that preclude propagation of electromagnetic waves in a certain frequency range. The PBG-based fibers (e.g., PCFs) present the opportunity for minimizing the interaction between the propagating waves and the material, thus allowing for the use of materials that themselves do not have a high intrinsic transparency.

Electromagnetic Sensors

The term electromagnetic refers to any form of energy that is propagated as a wave. Starting with the lowest energy and going to the highest, some examples are radio waves, infrared light, visible light from the red to the violet, ultraviolet light, and x-rays. Sound is essentially a propagating pressure wave, and therefore slightly different from electromagnetic radiation, but it is sensed in a very similar fashion.

Photonic Crystals 541 Overview

Because the physical phenomenon in photonic crystals is based on diffraction, the periodicity of the photonic crystal structure needs to be in the same dimensional scale as the wavelength of the electromagnetic waves of interest. The more the contrast in refractive index, the better the optical properties of the photonic crystal 285 . Photonic crystals are considered to be microphotonics structures, but they are generally discussed in the context of nanophotonics. Photonic crystals are artificially created, multidimensional periodic structures. Photonic crystals are 2D or 3D ordered structures composed from submicrometer-sized objects. An example of a photonic crystal is opal, the gemstone The opalescence is a photonic crystal phenomenon based on Bragg diffraction of light on the crystal's lattice planes. In general, photonic crystals are periodic dielectric structures that control the propagation of light. The dielectric structures have lattice parameters on the...

Parallelism Collective Cooperativity and the Grain of the Engram

Opinions regarding the significance of local collective EEG wave fields vary from superfluous epiphenomena, to information transmitters, to the substance of consciousness itself. E. R. John (1984) is perhaps the strongest proponent he points out that individual neurons are sensitive to the fields they generate. Adey (1984) and colleagues have applied EEG-like fields to the brains of experimental animals and found they produce behavioral effects. John proposes that a specific electromagnetic field is evoked by sensory stimuli and resonates with similar patterns stored in memory. New patterns bring new resonances which

Toward Molecular Consciousness

How is electrical wave energy coupled to neuronal structure, and what neuronal structures are most suitable for coupling and representation of cognitive content Simultaneous recognition (and cooperative coupling) by large numbers of neural elements requires rapid changes in chemical state of widely distributed macromolecules. Likely candidates are the allosteric proteins which can transduce regulatory signals (binding of molecules, ions acidity, voltage fields etc.) to undergo functional conformational changes. Hyden (1977) initially proposed that proteins rapidly change their conformation in response to weak, oscillating electric fields. W. Ross Adey (1977) has elaborated on the coupling of neural protein conformation and function to EEG waves. He has suggested that webs of hydrated glycoproteins (extending from neural membranes into the extracellular space), membrane proteins, and the cytoskeleton are primed to undergo rapid conformational changes in response to localized and...

Study of Light at the Nanoscale

New classes of metal-dielectric nanostructured materials with applications in photonics and optoelectronics are emerging Metal nanostructures are capable of supporting various plasmon modes, which can result in high local fields (see Section 5.6.2) and, in turn, in major improvement of optical responses. These plasmonic nanostructures act like nanoantennas accumulating and building up the electromagnetic energy in small nanometer-scale areas 340, 341, 342, 343 . Applications envisioned for these nanomaterails typically entail arrays of closely spaced metal nanoparticles (arrays of closely spaced metal rods) Arrays of nanoscale metal structures can be constructed to create plasmon waveguides that can be smaller than a wavelength of light. motion (a so-called plasmon) inside the metal particle 303, 346 . The surface of the nanoparticle confines the conduction electrons inside the particle and sets up an effective restoring force, leading to resonant behavior at the dipole surface...

EUV and Xray Lithography

The wavelength of electromagnetic radiation can be decreased until it limits no longer the resolution. Extreme UV radiation (EUV) includes the medium nanometer range of wave lengths. In recent years, values around 10 nm have also been reached, the region of the transition to soft X-rays. The lower nanometer and sub-nanometer range is addressed by X-ray lithography (XRL) 46 47 . Using X-rays, sharp local distributions of photoproducts are realized for structure dimensions in the medium and lower nanometer range, which are not accessible even for multilayer mask processes with UV radiation (Fig. 64). Such radiation transfers structures in the medium and lower nanometer range, so that this technology is applied for the fabrication of quantum dot contacts 48 .

Composite Materials with Carbon Nanotubes

The loading capacity of a nanotube composite depends, among others, on the arrangement of the individual tubes within the polymer matrix. For a material that has to carry tensile or compressive strain in a preferred direction, an alignment of the tubes most possibly in line with the strain proposes itself. Each individual tube may then be stressed up to its maximum capacity, which is highest in parallel to the tubular axis (Section 3.4.3). To obtain such composites, it is possible, for instance, to employ polymer materials moldable by melt extrusion. These are oriented by pressing the bulk composite through a nozzle. In doing so, the nanotubes align in parallel to the direction of extrusion. Another method consists in applying an electromagnetic field during polymerization. Good experiences have been made here with polyaniline composites regarding an arrangement of the nanotubes in parallel to the field lines.

Nearfield Optical Micropatterning Techniques

Both pattern generation and projecting group transfer processes are resolution-limited due to diffraction, as a result of the application of an optical system between the mask aperture and the collecting resist layer. This limitation does not apply for pattern transfer in the optical near field. In the case of direct contact of mask aperture and the resist, electromagnetic radiation is applicable for lithography in the optical near field.

The Cytoskeletal Connection

Microtubules, centrioles, and the cytoskeleton evolved to take command of biology. By being at the right size scale and moving in the right time scale, they appear capable of utilizing many forms of available energy. MT polarity, periodic structure, and helical lattice array of conformationally programmable subunits qualify them as ultimate computers and nanoengines as well, generating purposeful force and movement. They may capture and self focus electromagnetic radiation, induce coherency, and propagate energy quanta with minimal loss. Propagation may manifest as coherent polarization waves as described by Fr hlich, massless bosons as described by Del Giudice or as solitons as described by Davydov. Charge density waves or proton transfer at MT surface layers of ordered water, and positively charged counter ions such as calcium are other possible modes available for cytoskeletal based information and energy transfer. Several other possible modes of information management present...

Summary for Chapter

We encounter electromagnetic radiation as light from the sun and other sources, as radio and television signals, mobile telephone communications, fibre-optic laser light rays, and of course in the form of background radiation from deep space. The very successful model for the propagation of radiation is the set of wave equations of Maxwell. Solid state interactions expose the particle nature of light, where a quantum-mechanical

Transformations of Other Carbon Species

Extreme conditions in general enable a phase transition. These may not only be just high pressure alone, but also extreme temperatures, bombardment with electrons or other particles, or the application of energy-rich electromagnetic radiation. The crucial step is to remove a carbon atom from its equilibrium position to enable the redeposition in the shape of another modification. In such a process, the product formed is not necessarily the one thermodynamically most stable as kinetic effects may influence the outcome.

Nanooptical Switching and Conversion Elements

The coupling of photons with single-electron tunneling is not only of interest in relation to the UV and the visible regions of the electromagnetic spectrum. Josephson devices use, for example, the connection between microwave frequencies and superconductivity for ultra-sensitive magnetic measurements or highly precise voltage definition in magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJ). Beside these effects of long-wavelength radiation on the transport of Cooper pairs of electrons through tunneling barriers, single-electron transport processes can also interfere with low-energy photons. So-called Kondo peaks have been observed in the case of SET transistors exposed to microwave radiation 147 . Magnetic resonators of small size are of interest for the modulation of high-frequency electromagnetic radiation. Such structures lead to effective material properties corresponding to negative permittivity and negative permeability (so-called dou

Electroninduced Xray Spectroscopy

Electron-induced X-ray spectroscopy is a method for the determination of the atomic composition of a thin layer. Through the impact of energetic electron beams on a target, the electrons are slowed down by interactions with the target atoms. The deceleration of the charged particles induces the emission of electromagnetic radiation. With increasing kinetic energy of the electrons, the emission edge of this radiation shifts to a shorter wavelength range. As a result of the typical electron energies of around lOkeV, the spectrum starts in the medium X-ray and extends through the UV to the visible range. Individual sharp emission bands are overlaid around this broad continuum of Bremsstrahlung radiation. They originate through the direct interactions of the beam electrons with electrons of the inner shells of the target atom. With sufficient energy transfer, the shell electrons leave the solid and a relaxation process occurs that includes the movement of electrons of the outer shells...

Structures that Assist Measurement

In nanotechnology, the characterization of the composition of thin layers and surfaces is of similar importance to the determination of geometrical parameters of small structures. A wide spectrum of methods can be applied to determine the essential parameters of layers, addressing, for example, geometrical as well as chemical or physical-functional parameters 12 . Probe techniques that address only a small surface area are particularly suitable for the characterization of small structures. The same probes that are used at higher intensities for nanofabrication are also utilized for characterization focused particle beams and short-wavelength electromagnetic radiation. In contrast to lithography, for characterization purposes the focused beam should not induce changes in the layer. This requirement can only partially be met for focused probes of energetic particles or short-wavelength photons. Electron-induced X-ray spectroscopy is a method for the determination of the atomic...

The Future of Consciousness

Nanotechnology may enable the dream of Mind Tech merger to materialize. At long last, debates about the nature of consciousness will move from the domain of philosophy to large scale experiments. The visions of consciousness interfacing with, or existing within, computers or mind piloted robots expressed by Moravec, Margulis, Sagan and Max Headroom could be realized. Symbiotic association of replicative nanodevices and cytoskeletal networks within living cells could not only counter disease processes, but lead to exchange of information encoded in the collective dynamic patterns of cytoskeletal subunit states. If these are indeed the roots of consciousness, a science fiction-like deciphering and transfer of mind content may become possible. One possible scenario could utilize a small window in a specific brain region. Hippocampal temporal lobe, a site where memories enter and where electromagnetic radiation from outside the skull penetrates most readily and harmlessly, is one possible...

Conclusions and Outlook

Films of WO3 are responsive to light well into the visible region of the electromagnetic spectrum (up to 480 nm) provides a distinct advantage over materials such as TiO2, which is only photoresponsive to UV light, prior to the addition of dopants. Therefore, it is significant that nanocrystalline WO3 films have shown anodic photocurrents of up to 6 mA cm 2 in organic solutions. This means that devices can be constructed which couple WO3 film electrodes with a photovoltaic cell, such as amorphous silicon or dye-sensitized TiO2. These tandem cells 5,15 can be considered to operate by combining two photosystems. A nanocrstalline WO3 electrode represents the first photosystem, which absorbs the UV and blue-green portions of the electromagnetic spectrum and drives the photolysis of water. The photovoltaic cell acts as the second photosystem, which absorbs the remaining electromagnetic radiation that is not absorbed by the WO3 and thereby supplies the anodic potential required for the WO3...

Electron Beam Lithography

Regular structures such as line gratings with a constant periodicity can be realized without a mask or position-controlled beam in analogy with the lithography with electromagnetic radiation, EBL can use the interference of electrons for structure generation. Applying this approach, gratings with line widths of 0.1 im were structured into a 30 nm thick PMMA layer 86 .

Electron Holography And Nanotechnology

Nanoscale electromagnetic fields are essential for the function of many nanostructured materials and devices. Important examples include elemental and compound semiconductor p n junctions and non-volatile magnetic storage media. Theory and modeling can be used to estimate field strengths, but direct measurements are preferable for materials that have smaller dimensions, especially to understand and control the effects of local inhomogeneities on macroscopic properties. Off-axis electron holography is an ideal technique for tackling such problems. There are many possible imaging modes in the transmission electron microscope (TEM). Most of these suffer from the drawback that the final electron micrograph is a spatial distribution of intensity so that information about the phase shift of the electron that has passed through the sample is lost. The technique of electron holography, first proposed by Gabor 1 , overcomes this limitation, and allows the electron phase shift to be recovered....

Role of Converging Technologies

Develop and understand the nano aspects of the use of electromagnetic field interactions with cellular structures. Develop and understand how treatments may be developed by nano particle interactions only at specific sites where the electromagnetic fields are focused. Investigate whether electromagnetics can be used as a power source to conduct mechanical actions at the sites.

Simulation Methods and Models

The two-dimensional multiple multipole program (MMP) (Hafner 1990) has been used to investigate diffraction in the evanescent near field of metallic gratings, suspended in various dielectric media. MMP is a semi-analytic technique, in that the electromagnetic fields are approximated by a set of basis functions that are solutions to Maxwell's equations. The program numerically sets the coefficients to these basis functions to minimise the errors for the boundary conditions at matching points distributed along the boundary. Once the coefficients have been determined a full vector solution can be found at any point. Finite-difference time domain (FDTD) techniques have also been used to study ENFOL and related techniques, and these are in agreement with the MMP results. Simulations are performed for chrome transmission gratings of pitch p and thickness t suspended in a medium with index of refraction n. Fig. 17.11 illustrates a typical geometry that has been simulated and defines the...

Non Drug Treatments for Enhancement of Human Performance

Consider the use of externally applied, non-dangerous electromagnetic fields to increase the rate of production of body biochemicals that enhance human performance. DARPA has a proposal to increase the rate of stress protein production before a soldier goes into combat. The intent is to increase the survivability rate when the soldier is wounded and needs to receive blood products. Beyond that, one can envision increasing the rate of production of ATP, which will yield higher energy levels by natural means, will help ion pumping to aid in nerve recovery and contraction of muscles, and will speed recovery from combat stress. What other changes can be engineered by a specifically shaped electromagnetic pulse that might enhance human performance without pharmaceuticals This investigation may spawn a new industry in which the human is enhanced by externally applied electromagnetic pulses so shaped so as to enhance specific biochemical changes within the body without drugs or in...

Microcavity enhanced Raman Scattering and Anti Stokes Emission

With weak electromagnetic fields, even if the cavity is fabricated from a material with low nonlinearity, as is usually the case for optically transparent materials. The quality factors of MF or polystyrene (PS) microspheres of 2 - 70 mm in diameter with a thin shell of CdTe NCs were found to be high enough to provide the feedback required for nonlinear-optical processes such as enhanced Raman scattering 17, 49, 99 . It was also shown that Raman spectroscopy allows very efficient vibrational characterization of a monolayer of semiconductor NCs coating the micro-sphere 17

Exposure Variations due to Edge Enhancements

Close to the exit aperture of the grating, high intensity enhancements occur at the grating conductor edges, as can be seen in Fig. 17.13(a) for example. These enhancements are due to the sharp discontinuity at the conductor corners, which encourages charge concentration in a manner analogous to a static electromagnetic problem. The static analogy becomes more reasonable as the grating period becomes much smaller than the wavelength. These enhancements are only evident with TM illumination as it is in the TM case that the sharp discontinuity in the x-component of electric field exists. The surface charge distributions that give rise to these field enhancements are known as surface plasmons - they give rise to electromagnetic fields with their maximum field at the surface and a characteristically exponential decay away from the surface (Raether 1998).

Polymer Based Nuclear Imaging and Radiotherapy

With the appropriate delivery system, radioisotopes have a significant advantage over other therapy agents, namely, the emission of energy that can kill at a distance from the point of radioisotope localization. This diameter of effectiveness helps to overcome the problem of tumor heterogeneity because, unlike other molecular therapy (cell toxins, chemotherapy, etc.), not all tumor cells need to take up the radioisotope to eradicate a tumor. There are also physical characteristics (type of particle emission, emission energy, half-life) of different radioisotopes that may be selected to enhance therapeutic effectiveness.174 For example, different isotopes deliver beta particulate ionization over millimeters (131I) to centimeters (90Y). Long-lived isotopes such as 131I that remain within the tumor target may provide extended radiation exposure and high radiation dose, especially if there is progressive renal clearance and high target to non-target ratios.

Electromagnetic System

Electrodynamics has had an unprecedented technological impact on our everyday lives. The phenomena that collectively belong to the field span many orders of magnitude, and include long wavelength radio signals, millimeter wavelength microwaves at airfields and in the kitchen, light all the way between infrared, visible and ultraviolet wavelengths, and higher still all the way to harmful ionizing radiation. As long as we consider the free propagation of electromagnetic waves, one theory covers it all a remarkable discovery. Roadmap concepts leading to electro-quasi-statics and magneto-quasi-statics, and to their completely static counterparts. Next, we take a closer look at light, which is that part of the electromagnetic spectrum that ranges from the near infrared all the way through to the near ultraviolet, by treating both its wave-like and particle-like characteristics. There will be practically no optics here, and the interaction between light and matter will appear only later in...

Advanced Oxidation Processes

Photocatalysis is an advanced oxidation process (AOP), as are radiolysis 122-126 , sonolysis 127-131 , and other methods 9 . These oxidation processes are distinguished from each other by the way hydroxyl radicals (' OH) are generated because they have common 'OH as a primary oxidation agent to make the oxidation reaction possible in an aqueous system. Radiolytical processes produce 'OH by the irradiation of water with y-ray or high-energy electron beams from ionizing radiation sources. Sonochemical methods use ultrasound to sonicate water in the presence of dissolved gas to form bubbles first and then dissociate H2O to form 'OH. A photocatalysis reaction forms 'OH by the incorporation of water with holes that form because of the irradiation of direct oxidizing agents in homogeneous systems or nanoparticles in heterogeneous systems. In addition to 'OH radicals, direct h+ from catalyst and hydrogen peroxide radicals (HO2, 'O-) can also be possible oxidizing agents for heterogeneous...

Radiation Shielding for Spacecraft

And atmosphere, they become exposed to ionizing radiation in the form of charged atomic particles traveling at close to the speed of light. Highly charged, high-energy particles known as HZE particles pose the greatest risk to humans in space. A long-term exposure to this radiation can lead to DNA damage and cancer.

Cytoskeletal Self FocusingDel Giudice

As described in Chapter 6, a group of scientists from the University of Milan have applied the mathematical tools of many body problems to the activities of biomolecular dipoles. Del Giudice, Doglia, Milani and Vitiello (1985, 1982) have used quantum field theory to describe the electret state of biological systems (ordered water surrounding linear biomolecules) and determined that there exists a strong likelihood for the propagation of particle-like waves in biomolecules. Further, the ordering of water should lead to self-focusing of electromagnetic energy into filamentous beams excluded by the ordered symmetry. For ordered cytoplasm, they calculate the diameter for the confinement and propagation of particle-like waves (massless bosons, or solitons) in biomolecules to be about 15 nanometers, exactly the inner diameter of microtubules. The proposal by the Milan group has a number of implications. Confinement within filamentous regions excluded from water would favor the propagation...

Nanoparticle Arrays in Photonic Devices

Their effect on propagation of electromagnetic waves can be compared to that of electrons in semiconductors. They combine the quantum confinement of electronic states with simultaneous phonon confinement in the same structure. Photonic bandgap structures (PBS) were originally proposed in 1993 by Yablonovitch. 57 The development of PBS was initiated by the need of a photonic bandgap in quantum optics. The realization of photonic bandgap crystals could lead to miniaturization and high-speed performance of optical integrated circuits. They also have profound applications in telecommunications, lasers, fiber optics, data processing, and display technologies. The size of the photonic gap is determined by 1) refractive index contrast (refractive index of material vs. surrounding substance), and 2) filling fraction (percentage of volume that is occupied by voids). Wang et al. 58 theoretically predict that metal nano-particles self-assembled into three-dimensional structures could...

MT Automata Holography Hameroff Watt Smith

The self-focusing of electromagnetic energy described by the Milan group is thought to occur by an electret induced increase in the refractive index of cytoplasm. A similar concept was proposed (Hameroff, 1974) in which microtubules were thought to act like dielectric waveguides for electromagnetic photons. Living tissue does transmit light more readily than nonliving material. Van Brunt, Shepherd, Wall, Ganong and Clegg (1964) measured penetration of sunlight into mammalian brain by routes other than the visual system. Stereotactically placed photoreceptors recorded intensities of 10-3 lumens in sheep hypothalamus when surface intensity was 0.4 lumens, with a logarithmic diminution. The most light permeable areas were in the temporal regions of the skull, lateral to the orbits the brain's temporal poles and hippocampus received maximum light intensity. When the animals were sacrificed, light penetration to the hypothalamus remained constant for about 30 minutes following which the...

Maxwells Equations and B as Wavefunctions for Photons Optical Fiber Modes

The laws of electricity and magnetism give the values of electric field E and magnetic field B, as functions of position, in various circumstances. In classical electricity and magnetism it is known that the energy density in the electromagnetic field is Since the electromagnetic energy resides in particles called photons, this classical energy density can also be thought of as a probability function for finding photons. The analogy is most direct if the E and B fields represent traveling waves, and thus transport energy. Further guidance in finding the correct matter-wave equation is afforded by Maxwell's wave equation for all electromagnetic waves, from elementary physics, This equality requires co k ( 0ju0) 1 2 2.99793 x 108m s. This speed is the measured speed of light, and makes clear then the origin of all electromagnetic waves as similar to light.

Particle Dynamics in a Dielectrophoretic Microdevice

A dielectrophoretic device has been designed to trap, separate, and concentrate biological components carried in solution. The operating principle of the device is the dielectrophoretic interaction between the spheres and the fluid. The device was designed and manufactured by at Purdue University 6 . The device consists of a microchannel with a depth of 11.6 im, width of 350 im, and length of 3.3 mm. The channel was anisotropically etched in silicon to produce a trapezoidal cross-section. The channel was covered by a piece of anodically bonded glass. A schematic view and digital photo of the device are shown in Figure 13.1. Bright regions represent platinum electrodes and the dark regions represent the electrode gaps. The electrodes are covered by a 0.3 im thick layer of PECVD silicon dioxide, which insulates the electrodes from the liquid medium, suppressing electrolysis. The electrodes are arranged in interdigitated pairs so that the first and third electrodes from Figure 13.1 are...

Surface Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy

SERS is another optical detection technique suited for single-molecule studies because of its trace analytical capabilities together with its high structural selectivity compared to other optical spectro-scopies 76-79 . Strong enhancement in Raman signals can be observed from molecules attached to nanometer-sized architectures such as silver and gold nanoparticles 76,79-83 . Several potential schemes to prepare these nanostructured SERS-active architectures are schematically illustrated in Figure 16.7. The significant increase in cross section in SERS has been associated primarily with the enhancement of the electromagnetic field surrounding small metal objects through the interaction with SPR, and the chemical enhancement due to specific interactions of the adsorbed molecule with the metal surface. SERS enhancement factors on the order of 1014 corresponding to effective SERS cross sections of about 10 16 cm2 molecule allow Raman detection of single molecules. A further increase of...

Coupled Spherical Microcavities with Semiconductor Nanocrystals

As discussed in Sect. 14.3.1, the resonant internal field of a spherical cavity is not completely confined to the interior of the microparticle. Depending on the size of the microsphere, the evanescent field can extend into the surroundings up to a couple of micrometers. It was recently recognized that the partial delocalization of Mie resonance states is of great importance because it suggests a possibility for coherent coupling between WGMs of two adjacent spherical particles with closely matched sizes. Such a system of coherently coupled photonic atoms may be called a photonic molecule (PM) 57, 127 and can be employed in order to manipulate photons on the micrometer length scale. By analogy with the formation of molecular electronic orbitals, the tight binding approximation provides two combinations for the electromagnetic field in a system of interacting microspheres bonding and anti-bonding states (Fig. 14.21) 127-130 .

D3 Other Topics D31 Field Theory

The use of QED has proven useful in describing the interaction of light with matter. One of QED's key features is its gauge symmetry. Gauge symmetry implies that when independent changes to local field values are made at different points in space, the equations of quantum electrodynamics are not altered (symmetry is ensured only if the quantum description of a charged particle contains an electromagnetic field with its gauge boson). The underlying mathematical calculations, however, are complex (these are carried out using Feynman diagrams that represent possible variations of interactions and provide a shorthand for precise mathematical formulation). QCD has a mathematical mechanism similar to that of QED. Field theory first arose from a mathematical account of the propagation of fluids. Field theory was used in the discussion within classical physics of Faraday-Maxwell electromagnetism and soon thereafter of Einstein's gravity theory. Schrodinger's wave mechanics became a bridge...

Potential Applications

The molecular nature of carbon nanotube fabrics allows various CNT physical properties, including electromagnetic, mechanical, chemical, and optical behaviors, to be exploited to create integrated electronic devices (including nonvolatile memory devices) chemical, biological, and radiation sensors passive low-resistance, low-capacitance conformal interconnects and electromagnetic field emission devices, scaffolds for cell growth, antioxidants, and near infrared imaging tags for biological samples and cells, to name a few. Table 13-1 summarizes a number of proposed applications that could use SWNT fabrics as an enabling component.-7

Background Suppression

A schematic representation of a typical confocal microscope setup is shown in Figure 16.1. In a confocal setup, a laser beam is focused down to the diffraction limit using an objective with a high numerical aperture. A pinhole positioned in the primary focal plane of the objective rejects all light except that originating from the focal point, thus restricting the probe volume to the close vicinity of the focal point. A typical probe volume in a confocal setup is estimated to be 1 fL. TPE is another scheme that has been employed to successfully confine the sample volume and reduce the background signal for SMD. In a two-photon scheme, the analyte molecules are excited by simultaneous absorption of two photons with a total energy corresponding to the excitation energy of the molecule. The reason for the superior ability of TPE to reduce background is twofold. First, the efficiency of TPE has a quadratic dependence on the laser intensity. As a result, only the immediate vicinity of the...

Variant 1 the cathoderay tube CRT

The cathode-ray tube is the oldest and best known facility for generating moving images. A CRT monitor consists of a vacuum-filled (10-6 to 10-7 torr) glass bulb plus a heated cathode (voltage about 25 kV), also known as the hot cathode or electron gun (Abrams et al. 2003). When heated, the electrons of the negatively charged cathode begin to oscillate and are then emitted from it. Between the cathode and the anode exists an accelerating potential of several kV. Due to this voltage difference, the electrons are accelerated in the direction of the anode and generate a point of light when they strike a phosphor coating on the side of the glass vessel (Tannas 1985). Color is generated by three individual electron beams, which strike differently endowed phosphor layers through a hole or a slotted mask, thus generating red, green, and blue light. The grid regulates the intensity of the electron beam and thus the brightness of the resulting light spot and is controlled by the video...

Lithography Procedures

The term lithography generally means the transfer of structures of an electronic or an image pattern into a thin radiation-sensitive layer, the photoresist, by means of electromagnetic waves or particle beams. The execution of the lithography method involves a series process consisting of deposing the photoresist, exposure and development of the radiation-sensitive layer.

Noble Metal Nanoparticles

The optical properties (colors) of Au and Ag nanopar-ticles are attributable to the surface plasmon resonance of the nanoparticles and depend on the size and shape of the nanoparticles and the dielectric constant of the embedding medium of the nanoparticles as described by Mie theory with quasistatic regime 19-21 . Unlike the bulk plasmon, the surface plasmon of nanoparticles is directly excited by propagating light waves (electromagnetic waves). This allows the nanoparticles to absorb and scatter specific wavelengths of light selectively. Therefore, one could tune the color of the nanoparticles by carefully selecting the nanoparticle

Scope of the investigation 4521 Introduction

Light can be defined as electromagnetic waves with frequencies in the visible range and thus perceivable as having a particular brightness and color. Waves of other frequencies have names that primarily characterize their use, but no color. Many of our present-day light sources are thermal radiators. This includes the Sun, candles, incandescent, and tungsten-halogen lamps. The luminous color of the object is dependent upon its temperature i.e. such light sources generate light as a secondary product of heating up.

Unique Properties of PCFs and Their Potential Applications

PBG technology can be applied to several devices operating in microwave and optical regions. This theory is based on the principle of light localization the light wave whose frequency is within the bandgap is trapped inside the material and is not allowed to propagate. Because of the crystal structure, the dimensions of the periodic lattice and the properties of the component materials with enhanced propagation of electromagnetic waves in certain frequency bands (the PBGs) may be forbidden within the crystal. The formation of PCF is based on PBG technology. It is important to point out that the all-fiber laser design based on PCF technology is possible with continuous wave (CW) power output exceeding 25 W at a wavelength of 1075 nm, leading to a slope efficiency better than 75 percent, optical-to-optical efficiency greater than 65 percent, and 3 dB-line width less than 0.2 nm. Integration of PCF technology will significantly improve the performance of a vertical-cavity...

Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Imaging MRI

The nucleus of an atom is built up of a number of protons and neutrons. Because the atomic particles are grouped in pairs that rotate in different directions, atoms with an even number of protons and neutrons display no external rotation. Nuclei in H1, F19 or P31, display a weak external rotation or spin. Such nuclei also display a vibration effect or precession. Every object that can be made to vibrate will do so more strongly under the influence of a force applied at the same frequency as the natural resonant frequency of the object. A similar resonance effect occurs when atomic nuclei are subjected to electromagnetic waves at their own vibration frequency.

Integrated and Nonlinear Optics

Each year, the telecommunication world experiences emergence of new services, new technologies and improvements to existing services e.g., internet access induced a traffic explosion owing to applications like music and video sharing. To face this evolution and become more competitive, the market requires continuous improvement, and cost effective solutions, opening up a window of opportunity for low cost sol-gel derived components to be used in optical integrated circuits. Optical integrated circuits present several advantages when compared to the typical electronic integrated circuits - in particular larger bandwidth, low-loss coupling, smaller size, lower weight and power consumption, and immunity to electromagnetic interference. Sol-gel processing allows the combination in a single material of organic and inorganic counterparts, overcoming well known problems associated with each individual phase, namely low mechanical flexibility and high brittleness of inorganic glasses, their...

MEMS Deformable Micro Mirrors

MDM standard diameters come in 10, 16, and 25 mm. However, these mirrors can be fabricated as large as 125 mm in diameter using a 633 nm laser beam. For example, a 25 mm diameter mirror comprising of 37 ES actuators can be fabricated using an applied voltage of 110 V. Note the actuation voltage increases with an increase in the actuators deployed. It is important to mention that higher-order corrections in laser beams require driving the ES actuators in different patterns. A high-fidelity modeling software is needed to design an MDM. Optimum design requires appropriate values of design parameters such as mirror thickness, number of actuators, spacer size, and mirror deflection as a function of actuation voltage. A vertical comb array microactuator (VCAM) with continuous membrane mirror plays a key role in the design of an MDM. A three-dimensional (3-D) VCAM can be fabricated using a series of parallel vertical plates involving a horizontal substrate. Note a VCAM with continuous...

Near Field Microwave Microscopy for Nanoscience and Nanotechnology

There are a number of ways to access the near-field component of electromagnetic fields to gain subwavelength resolution. A technique that uses microwaves, NFMM has a number of interesting features 14-16 . Firstly, there is not much structure in the electromagnetic properties in this frequency range so one is in fact measuring the low frequency properties, which are of considerable practical importance. In addition, subsurface information is obtained because microwaves penetrate well into materials, i.e. in good conductors where the skin depth is still of the order of a micron. Finally, in comparison to other frequency regimes, it should be straightforward to obtain quantitative information, again because the electromagnetic properties are relatively simple 17 . Indeed, by consideration of frequency shifts, quantitative measurement of the local dielectric constant and electrical conductivity has been done using numerical modeling based on cavity perturbation theory 18,19 . Another,...

Synthesis of High Density and Transparent Forsterite Ceramics Using Nano Sized Precursors and Their Dielectric

Ramie process that achieves low porosity under ordinary pressure. To obtain high-density ceramics, chemical activity of the source powder is an essential issue. For example, synthesis of transparent Y203 ceramics after sintering at a relatively low temperature has been demonstrated by using carbonate derived very fine powder.5 In the present study, we chose forsterite (Mg2Si04) ceramics as a case study to illustrate the effect of the dispersion of source powder on the solid-state reaction and sintering behavior. As forsterite is difficult to sinter,6 it is likely a suitable material to evaluate the effect of the precursor on sintering behavior. From the engineering viewpoint, densification of forsterite to avoid formation of pores is a very important issue. Indeed, the most likely application of forsterite ceramics is as a dielectric material for use in high-frequency circuits. In fact, forsterite ceramics are useful for submillimetric-wave applications, because of their low...

Development of Solid SERS Substrates Based on Metallic Nanostructures

In addition to immobilized colloids, researchers have developed a variety of solid surface-based SERS substrates that are produced entirely from solid materials, as depicted schematically in Fig. 1. In contrast to immobilized colloids, the solid SERS-based probes described subsequently exhibit a high degree of reproducibility. In addition, nanoshells with a dielectric core and a metallic shell (e.g., Au SiO2), or a metallic core and a dielectric shell (e.g., Au core SiO2 shell), or a metallic core and a metallic shell (e.g., Au core Ag shell, Ag core Ag shell, and Ag core Au shell), provide a tunable geometry in which the magnitude of the local electromagnetic field at the nanoparticle surface can be precisely controlled (48-51). Alumina-based substrates produced by vacuum evaporation have proven to be among the most dependable, with a batch-to-batch variability of typically < 10 for induced signals of selected model compounds. The surface of an alumina-based substrate consists of...

Overconsumption or moderation

Intensify cyber-pornography, violent cybergames for children, the use of mobile phones (in 2002 there were 1.14 billion people owning one) with their attendant hazards of electromagnetic fields, proliferating transmission masts, and leaching of lead into landfills (ITU, 2003).

MEMS Technology for Military Systems Applications

The sensors discussed above are best suited to identify the out-of-specification weapons, predict remaining useful shelf life, improve the reliability through minor design modification, and to assess the readiness of the weapon stockpile. Remote miniature sensors using MEMS technology are required to alert soldiers of harmful chemical gases and biological agents in battlefield or urban environments. It is desirable to mention that the concept of embedded prognostics and diagnostics sensors will be found most useful in performing routine maintenance checks to reduce soldier involvement, in obtaining readiness data from each missile or offensive weapon, and in improving missile reliability and kill probability 2 . Design requirements of an embedded sensor could vary from sensor to sensor depending on the specific parameters to be measured. The natural environmental parameters such as temperature, pressure, and humidity are very similar for various weapon systems, except for the salient...

Materials for space structures

Another approach for synthesis of CNT materials is the spinning of CNT to macroscopic fibers. The spinability of CNT however is limited by the bad solubility in organic solvents. By dispersion of SWCNT in strong acids however fibers with a mostly uniform alignment and promising mechanical and electrical properties have already been achieved (Ericson et al. 2002). Recently Chinese researchers of the Tsinghua university succeded in the production of a 200 im thick yarn from carbon nanotu-bes by dragging a bundle of CNT grown on a silicon substrate up to 30 cm length similarly to spinning silk (Jiang et al. 2002). If it should be possible in the future to weave such CNT fibers into macroscopic objects, numerous applications will arise also in space, e.g. in materials for electromagnetic radiation shielding or protection against mechanical impacts for space stations or astronaut suits).

Microtubule Organizing Centers MTOC and Centrioles

As the chromosomes condense in prophase, the MT system changes its display and turnover rate. Interphase MT are gradually shortened while new MT start to grow from the centrosome. At this point, the system is extremely sensitive to polymerization inhibitors. Drugs which are used against cancer are often mitotic inhibitors which prevent the rapid polymerization of prophase MT from MTOC. Kinetochores are mobile MTOC which attach chromosomes and bind MT at their plus end (Figure 5.10). MT assemble between centrosomes (which bind their minus end) and kinetochores (which bind their plus end) and separate the genetic material towards the daughter cell poles in the mitotic cycle. The delicate array of the two centrioles, connected MT spindles and star-like astral projections (MT which overshoot the centrioles) have suggested to many observers some type of electromagnetic field because of the resemblance to a magnetic field pattern. The contractile ring formed perpendicular to the axis of...

Adhesive Mask Technique

Resists based on organic polymers are preferred as adhesion masks. These resists show a local change in solubility in a certain solvent (developer) due to local exposure to electromagnetic radiation. The change to higher or lower solubility differentiates the resists into positive and negative ones, respectively (Fig. 35). Steep edges in the resist are a prerequisite for the fabrication of small structures and high aspect ratios. Therefore, the resist should exhibit a high gradation, so that a small difference in dose results in a larger change in solubility (Fig. 36). The requirement of high gradation is of particular importance in nanotechnology due to the proximity effects that are observed. These effects are usually associated with external parameters, such as the wavelength of electromagnetic radiation (a proximity effect due to diffraction) or the energy of fast particles (a proximity effect due to io-nization and X-ray emission). These effects result in a distribution of the...

Structuring Metal Films

Plates (Figure 8.9(b)) are building blocks of many micromechanical devices, arrays of very thin metallic lines (Figure 8.9(c)) can polarize electromagnetic radiation, and metallic micropatterns on dielectrics (Figure 8.9(d)) are essential components of electronic circuits. In making such structures, our RD method offers speed and simplicity without the need to protect the unetched regions or to use high-power lasers. The structures shown in Figure 8.9 were all fabricated on a bench-top by a straightforward application of a gel stamp soaked in appropriate commercial etchants (for gold, 25 water solution of TFA etchant (Transene Company, Danvers, MA) for copper and nickel, 35 water solution of FeCl3-based PCB RadioShack etchant, Cat. 276-1535 for iron, 5-10 HNO3 in all cases stamps were soaked for 2h).

Material Requirements for Fabrication of MEMS Devices

Material requirements for RF-MEMS or photonic-MEMS or optical-MEMS devices will be more stringent to meet stated performance requirements under extreme battlefield environments. High-performance substrates, improved semiconductors, and composite structural materials are vital to accomplish the battlefield mission requirements. Unique semiconductor material such as antimonide-based compound semiconductor material with narrow bandgap and carrier mobility ten times greater than silicon, if used in fabrication of MEMS devices, can allow operation under less than 1 Vdc, leading to minimum power consumption. Wideband semiconductors under development such as gallium nitride and silicon nitride (Si3N4) will be best suited for MEMS-based RF, photonic, and electro-optic sensors, electronically steerable-phased array antennas, radar actuators, and covert communications systems. It is necessary to develop new classes of semiconductor materials and metallic films for fabrication of MEMS devices to...

Ws12 [Wnxi Wmx2 Wnx2 WmxiV2 and

For other particles, notably photons of electromagnetic radiation, the symmetric combination Ws(1,2), equation (5.4), is found to occur in nature. Macroscopically large numbers of photons can have exactly the same quantum state, and this is important in the functioning of lasers. Photons, alpha particles, and helium atoms are examples of Bose particles, or bosons. The Casimir force 7 operates between metallic surfaces, forcing them together. It is an electromagnetic effect which has to do with the modes of oscillation of the electromagnetic field in an enclosed region. Two parallel mirrors spaced a distance Z apart will allow standing electromagnetic waves to build up, propagating in the z-direction perpendicular to the surfaces, Two important corrections to the theory equation (5.27) have been made in achieving the fit shown in Figure 5.6. The first is that the gold metal evaporated onto the surfaces is not in fact a perfect mirror, and allows electromagnetic waves of very high...

Nanofabrication For Nanoelectronics

A PBG crystal (or photonic crystal) is a spatially periodic structure fabricated from materials having different dielectric material constants 246 . It can influence the propagation of electromagnetic waves in a similar way as a semiconductor does for electrons. The concept of this new class of material was first proposed independently by Yablonovich 247 and John 248 in 1987, and since then a wide variety of applications has been envisioned or demonstrated for this new class of materials. In silicon and other semiconductors, adjacent atoms are separated by about a quarter of a nanometer. Photonic bandgap materials involve similar structures but on a larger scale. A photonic crystal, for example, provides a convenient and powerful tool to confine, control, and manipulate photos in all three dimensions of space, for example, to block the propagation of photons irrespective of their polarization or direction to localize photons to a specific area at restricted frequencies to inhibit the...

Ion Trap on a GaAs Chip Pointing to a New Qubit

Figure 9.26 An image of a single trapped Cd+ fluorescing ion along a view perpendicular to the chip plane, after about 1 s integration 25 . The ion is seen in the second of the four sections shown, and the inter-electrode spacing (vertical on the page) is 60 mm. The ion is held in position by radio-frequency electromagnetic fields arising from radio-frequency voltages applied to the nearby electrodes. The ion fluoresces with laser radiation nearly resonant with an S-P electronic transition in the ion, at 214.5 nm wavelength. The profile of the electrodes is seen as scattered radiation from an additional laser. With continuous laser cooling, the ion remains in position for up to an hour but with no laser cooling, the lifetime is about 0.1 s. The authors were not able in this apparatus to load more than one ion at a time. (Reprinted from Nature Physics with permission from Macmillan Publishers, Ltd.) Figure 9.26 An image of a single trapped Cd+ fluorescing ion along a view perpendicular...

Perspectives

Phenomena will permit to overcome this technical barrier. Despite its limitations, SNOM is used in various fields of sciences owing to its unique versatility. Depending on the specific configuration, a near-field signal can be sensitive to the local electric field, magnetic field, permittivity, chemical properties, or topography. The technique is at the origin offascinating scientific discoveries in the emerging field ofnanoscience. The instrument permitted breakthrough studies ofindividual molecules with unprecedented details (absorption moment orientation, lifetime and dynamical properties ), and opened the possibility to perform vibrational spectroscopy and chemical imaging with optical resolutions down to 10 nm. It also allowed for the first time a direct observation of surface plasmons and triggered advances in plasmonic and photonic devices. There is simply no other means to map an electromagnetic field distribution with nanoscale resolution. However, interesting questions are...

Diamond Planets

There are many ways that carbon atoms may be squeezed together to form a diamond. First, all stars and planets move relative to one another, so the act of collision between them may not uncommon. Such a collision will certainly convert the majority of carbon atoms into diamond. Second, each planet or satellite is constantly bombarded by asteroids or comets. This is why many satellites such as the moon, are covered with impact craters. Again, each meteorite impact can produce diamond dust. Indeed, nano-sized diamond particles are present in meteorites as well as in impact craters. Third, billions of asteroids and hundreds of billions of comets are constantly banging against one another. Hence, microscopic diamond may be formed in the solar system all the time. Fourth, as giant stars explode after running out of nuclear fuel (e.g. supernovae), the explosion can spew diamond debris into space. Fifth, the universe is soaked with cosmic rays, star winds, gamma ray bursts, and X-ray beams....

Focused Ion Beam FIB

In SEM and FIB, the particles to be examined are scanned on the surface. The secondary particles (ions and electrons) are used for imaging in FIB. As the ions travel at much lower velocities, their Lorentz force is lower. (Lorentz force is the force exerted on a charged particle in an electromagnetic field. The particle will experience a force due to electric field qE, and due to the magnetic field, qv X B. When combined, they give the Lorentz force F q(E + v X B), where E is the electric field, B is the magnetic field, q is the charge of the particle, v is its instantaneous velocity, and X is the cross-product.)

Basic Nanoscience

Foremost among the technological challenges of long-duration space flight are the dangers to human health and physiology presented by the space environment. Acute clinical care is essential to the survival of astronauts, who must face potentially life-threatening injuries and illnesses in the isolation of space. Currently, we can provide clinical care and life support for a limited time, but our only existing option in the treatment of serious illness or injury is expeditious stabilization and evacuation to Earth. Effective tertiary clinical care in space will require advanced, accurate diagnostics coupled with autonomous intervention and, when necessary, invasive surgery. This must be accomplished within a complex man-machine interface, in a weightless environment of highly limited available space and resources, and in the context of physiology altered by microgravity and chronic radiation exposure. Biomolecular approaches promise to enable lightweight, convenient, highly focused...

Ray Diffraction

X-rays corresponds to electromagnetic radiation in the wavelength range of 1 . The wavelength range is below that of ultraviolet light and above that of gamma rays. This radiation is produced when charged particles are decelerated by metals, thus producing a continuum called Bremsstrauhlung radiation. X-rays are generally produced when electrons of several thousands of electron volts are decelerated or stopped by metals. This will produce a white radiation up to a threshold frequency corresponding to the kinetic energy of the particle. This threshold corresponds to a wavelength (in angstroms), X 12399 V where V is the accelerating voltage of the electrons.

The Diode Family

The simplest device that one can make using both P and N doping is the diode. The diode is explained in Section 7.6.4. The diode is a one-way valve with two electrical terminals, and allows current to flow through it in only one direction. The diode provides opportunities for many applications. It is used to contact metal wires to silicon substrates as a Shottkey diode. The diode can be made to emit light (LEDs). Diodes can detect electromagnetic radiation as photo-detectors, and they form the basis of semiconductor lasers. Not all of these effects are possible using silicon, and why this is so is also explained later on.

Holograms

A method of recording and reconstructing wavefronts associated with interference patterns is call holography, a technology whose mechanism has inspired numerous speculations of holographic brain function and consciousness. Holography is a method of information storage employing coherent beams of electromagnetic radiation. It was invented in the late 1940's by Denis Gabor (1948) who won the Nobel prize, and achieved technical importance with the arrival of the laser as a convenient source of coherent light in the 1950's. A hologram is a permanent record of the pattern of interference between two sources of coherent light (or any coherent waveforms) in localized regions of space, usually a photographic film plate. Subsequent reference waves unlock the patterns from storage. The record of both the original interfering waves are stored and the relevant information used as an address to retrieve patterns. Each portion of the hologram contains information about each part of both original...

Semiconductors

Semiconductors have a special atomic structure that allows their conductivity properties (both good and not so good) to be controlled by energy from electric currents, electromagnetic fields, or even light sources. As an example, when you apply heat energy to a semiconductor you can increase its conductivity of electricity. These semiconductor properties make it possible to use them to make products such as transistors, integrated circuits, and many other types of electronic devices.

Tunnelling Time

Tunnelling refers to the classically impossible process of a particle to penetrate an energy barrier when its energy is smaller than the maximum of the potential of the barrier. The main magnitudes involved in the problem are the height V0 and the length L of the potential barrier. If they are large, the probability to penetrate the barrier is very small and we say that it is an opaque barrier. Examples of tunnelling processes are a-decay, transmission of electromagnetic waves (EMW) in undersized waveguides, and tunnelling of electrons. A quantum particle usually is said to have an intrinsic wave nature, often paraphrased by wave functions or wavepackets. The probability to penetrate a barrier, which is quantified through the transmission coefficient (probability) T, strongly depends on the nature of the exponential decay of the wave function under the barrier. philosophical ones. Additionally, many physicists hesitated to deal with Hartman's results since a very fast tunnelling, or a...

Future Developments

A complete description of the local photoelectrochemical response (albeit with a lower resolution) can be achieved using a near-field scanning optical microscope (SNOM), in which the end of a tapered optical fiber scans the metal surface 33 using very small fiber apertures it is possible to obtain a resolution higher than the half-wavelength limit of classical optics. In addition, the exponential decay of the electromagnetic field at the probe aperture allows a direct excitation of surface plasmons, as in Otto's configurations 24 25 this makes the SNOM ideally suitable for the investigation of the topography of surface excitations.

Complex Time

Although common sense dictates that the tunnelling time must be a real time and that there are no clocks that measure a complex time, nevertheless the concept of complex time in the theory of the traversal time problem of electrons appeared in many approaches (see 65 , and references therein). The optical analog of the Larmor clock for classical electromagnetic waves based on Faraday effect lead us also to a complex time 37 .

Numerical Results

Numerical simulations are needed to clarify finite size effects. In this case we have to consider a specific wave-packet and evaluate its probability amplitude at different values of the time in order to calculate the amount of time taken to cross the system. In this section, we first review the results for periodic structures which, due to their complexity, are treated as nondispersive media, and so the conclusions are directly applicable to electromagnetic waves. Second, we consider the case of resonant tunnelling and we finish by presenting the results for finite size effects in electron tunnelling.

Photonic Crystals

Or 3D devices with ordered variations in refractive index, more specifically with periodically varying indexes of refraction. The devices are constructed of ultrathin layers of nonconducting material that reflect various wavelengths of light. Photonic crystals are highly engineered material with superior optical properties may be used to develop optical circuits. These device are designed to create a bandgap structure with forbidden regions and allowed energies that can select or confine electromagnetic waves. They are periodic dielectric or metallodielectric (nano)structures that are designed to affect the propagation of electromagnetic waves in the same way as the periodic potential in a semiconductor crystal affects the electron motion by defining allowed and forbidden electronic energy bands. They can be thought of as optical analogs to electronic semiconductors. The periodically varying index of refraction permits the control of the propagation of photons inside the crystals,...

Plasmonics

Plasmonics is an emerging field of optics aimed at the study of light at the nanometer scale as noted, these dimensions are far smaller than a wavelength of light (e.g., 1550nm), smaller than today's smallest electronic devices 265 . Plasmons are coherent oscillations of the conduction electrons of the metal against the static positive background of the metal ion cores 142 . Some nanostructures act as super-lenses, capturing specific wavelengths of light, focusing the light to ultrasmall spots at high intensities, and converting some electrical energy back into light that is reflected away 265, 294 . These metallic nanoscale structures are being investigated for their strong localization via the plasmon resonance it is expected that these structures can be used to guide light over extended distances with lateral dimensions much less than the wavelength 250 . This research is expected to allow scientists and engineers to design new optical materials and devices from the bottom up using...

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