Conclusions

We have presented an overview of various growth methods for multi-walled and single-walled carbon nanotubes. It is shown that chemical vapor deposition approaches are highly promising for producing large quantities of high quality nanotube materials at large scales. Controlling nanotube growth with CVD strategies has led to organized nanowires that can be readily integrated into addressable structures useful for fundamental characterization and potential applications. It can be envisioned that in a foreseeable future, controlled growth will yield nanotube architectures used as key components in next generations of electronic, chemical, mechanical and electromechanical devices.

It is fair to say that progress in nanotube research has been built upon the successes in materials synthesis. This trend shall continue. It is perhaps an ultimate goal for growth to gain control over the nanotube chirality and diameter, and be able to direct the growth of a semiconducting or metallic nanowire from and to any desired sites. Such control will require significant future effort, and once successful, is likely to bring about revolutionary opportunities in nanoscale science and technology.

Acknowledgements

The work carried out at Stanford were done by J. Kong, N. Franklin, T. Tombler, C. Zhou, R. Chen, A. Cassell, M. Chapline, E. Chan and T. Soh. We thank Professors C. Quate, S. Fan, S. Y. Wu, C. Marcus and Dr. J. Han for fruitful collaborations. This work was supported financially by National Science Foundation, DARPA/ONR, a Packard Fellowship, a Terman Fellowship, Semiconductor Research Corporation/Motorola Co., Semiconductor Research Corporation/Semetech., the National Nanofabrication Users Network at Stanford, Stanford Center for Materials Research, the Camile Henry-Dreyfus Foundation and the American Chemical Society.

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