Fig. 4. Luttinger liquid behavior in carbon nanotubes. (a) and (b) plot G vs T and scaled dl/dV vs eV/kBT corresponding to bulk tunneling on double logarithmic scale (from [35]). (c) AFM image of a nanotube kink. (b) G vs T across the kink showing tunneling between the ends of two Luttinger liquids (from [37])

ponent of ~2, consistent with end-to-end tunneling between two LLs. Moreover, both end-to-end tunneling and bulk tunneling, which were observed in the same sample, gave the same g parameter, thus providing strong evidence for the LL model.

It appears that the LL model can also explain the transport phenomena in a variety of other structures such as buckled and crossed nanotubes [36] (see Sect. 1.4). The fact that the LL effects persist even up to room temperature may have important implications for future devices based on nanotubes, i.e., the electron-correlation effects will have to be included in designing these molecular devices.

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