Improved properties Hydrothermal Synthesis

Hydrothermal methods are becoming a popular technique to precipitate mixed metal oxides directly from either homogeneous or heterogeneous solution. Hydrothermal method utilizes water under pressure and at temperatures above its normal boiling point as a means of speeding up the reactions between solids.[7] Water is an excellent solvent because of its high dielectric constant. This decreases with rising temperature and increases with rising pressure, with temperature effect predominating. In addition, the high dielectric constant of water is confirmed to a region of low temperature and high densities (pressure). This property is mainly responsible for increasing the solubility of many sparingly soluble compounds under hydrothermal conditions leading to many useful chemical reactions such as hydrolysis, precipitation, coprecipitation, and crystal growth.

Hydrothermal reactions are usually performed in closed vessels. The pressure-temperature relations of water at constant volume are shown in Fig. 2. The reactants are either dissolved or suspended in a known

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