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where Ms is the magnetization and t is thickness of the GMR free layer and, conversely, Mr and d are the magnetization and the thickness of the disk media layer. The GMR voltage, and therefore sin 0free, is proportional to the time-varying disk field H(t) applied along the structure's transverse direction. The free layer magnetization is normally oriented 90° to this field, along the longitudinal direction of the sensor when no disk field is present, previously shown in Fig. 5. For this magnetic field "balancing'' between GMR and disk moments to be effective, the net of all other magnetic forces within the GMR free layer must be zero, as shown in Fig. 9. This design objective is often referred to as the "proper bias'' of the GMR read head, so that

Hpinned + Hinter + Helect

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