Dekker Encyclopedia of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, Second Edition DOI: 10.1081/E-ENN2-120006100 Copyright © 2009 by Taylor & Francis. All rights reserved.

Fig. 1 Hard disk area! density trend.

ferromagnetic layers prompted the label "spin valve'' for this structure.^

The GMR effect varies as the cosine of the angle of magnetizations between pinned and free layers (Fig. 5), varying as

Considering that 0pinned = p/2

Therefore the voltage of a spin valve, GMR sensor with width W, height h, resistance R, and a relative term called magnetoresistance (A R/R)gmr with current I passing through the structure is given by:

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