Government Grants Database
As we think about the start-up opportunities in nanotechnology, an uncertain financial environment underscores the importance of market timing and revenue opportunities over the next five years. Of the various paths to nanotech, which of them are 20-year quests in search of a government grant, and which are market-driven businesses that will attract venture capital Are there co-factors of production that require a whole industry to be in place before a company ships products
Even if the goals of government funding of nanotechnology are justified, it is possible that the program is not being implemented in a manner that achieves those goals. Before reviewing implementation of the NNI and the 21st Century Nanotechnology Research and Development Act, we provide a brief summary of general problems encountered in managing public R&D programs. Critics of publicly funded research and development highlight two general problems associated with managing R&D programs. According to critics, the underlying cause of these failures was classic pork barrel politics.17 Government funding results in the formation of special interest groups claiming that they are worthy of support. Such interest groups provide biased information and have a major influence on the decision-making process.
What does this culture imply First, it implies that commercially valuable ideas may be released into the public domain, that potential patents may be barred by early disclosure, or that an existing licensable patent (or application) may be subject to invalidation. Second, if an acquirer of technology is considering a partnering arrangement there will need to be a mutual assessment of what level of research secrecy is really needed and how it fits the personnel and institution involved for example, it must be determined that no insurmountable conflict exists with the views of academic freedom held by the campus personnel, with university policy, or with obligations under government funding.
Generally segregated in relatively large industrial, government and academic laboratories but the latest trend suggests, to a smaller but not less remarkable extent, that the private sector, and in particular SMEs, are investing into the nanometer scale technology. The public sector still holds the lion's share of research and has been growing at an unprecedented rate during the last few years. The global public spending in nanoscience and technology exceeded US 3 billion in 2003 and it will increase further since more countries, including the developing countries, are planning to or have already launched national nano-initiatives (Refs 5, 10). A look at the government funding of the next five years of the USA confirms the progressive trend in public investments into nanoresearch and development. For the year 2005, a sum of US 809.8 million has been approved and the figure for 2008 exceeds an annual spending of US one billion (Ref. 11). The developing as well as the newly emerging...
Like other 'emerging technologies' that are tightly linked to basic scientific research, nanotechnology generates intellectual property that is perceived as valuable and thus protected by patents. Various laws, regulations, and treaties govern the relationship between 'the public good' and the protections offered by patents. These rules vary across nations, and even within any one country there is not necessarily agreement on what should be patentable and how the benefits of protected intellectual property should be shared. In the United States, where much nanotechnology research is funded by government grants, the 1980 Bayh-Dole Act encourages universities to seek patents, on the grounds that such protection will ultimately encourage universities to transfer technology into the commercial sector, yielding economic, i.e. social, return as well as intellectual return on the government investment. Research studies on the effects of Bayh-Dole, however, have illustrated the potential...
Columbia also received an initial U.S. government grant of 10.8 million to fund the work of 16 researchers for five years in their Center for Electronic Transport in Molecular Nanostructures. Professors Ronald Breslow (who won a National Medal of Science) and Horst Stormer (a Nobel Prize winner in physics) lead the center.
While there is no known Federal grants program focused on memetics, nor any apparent, organized research community, there are likely a number of existing and completed research projects that impact on the domain. These probably are found in a variety of disciplines and do not use a common vocabulary. For example, a few archaeologists apply evolutionary theory in their work (Tschauner 1994 Lyman and O'Brien 1998), and some cultural anthropologists explore the evolution of culture in a context that is both social and biological (Rindos 1985 Cashdan 2001 Henrich 2001). However, most archaeologists avoid theoretical explanations altogether, and cultural anthropology is currently dominated by a humanist rather than scientific paradigm. So, even though starting a research program in this area would not have to begin from scratch, there would be much work to do. The biggest roadblock would be getting researchers from various disciplines to collaborate over a common set of interests.
Before analyzing how the National Nanotechnology Initiative is being implemented, one should consider whether government funding of nanotechnology is justified in the first place. In this section, we identify the different rationales for government funding of R&D and explore what rationales can be used to support the existence of the NNI. Public funding of research and development can be motivated by three different goals. First, government funding can be intended to support basic scientific research.10 This goal is rooted in the assumption that the private sector is prone to underinvest in basic research because the returns to the investment may be appropriated by others, and the risks are difficult to measure.11 For example, government should support scientists such as Richard Feynman, a physicist who made major strides in quantum mechanics, because private companies are unlikely to engage in such research. Publicly funded basic research is usually conducted by government agencies...
Engineering promised a revolution in medical care, including the ability to cure or prevent diseases with a genetic basis such as Huntington's disease, haemophilia, cystic fibrosis and some breast cancers. Manipulation of plant genomes promised a revolution in how food is produced, by engineering crops with increased yield, nutritional content and shelf life. At present, nanotechnology has a very high wow index. For the past decade, nanotechnologists have wowed the public with our ability to manipulate matter at the atomic level and with grand visions of how we might use this ability. The good news has given nanotechnology a strong start with extraordinary levels of focused government funding, which is starting to reap tangible benefits to society. The concept of convergence, or the synergistic combination of multiple technologies, is of growing interest to government funding agencies and researchers who seek to leverage the capabilities of each field to achieve something greater than...
Now, a lot of scientists feel above strongly advocating government funding for their work. Fine, then you won't get funded. Or you'll get funded because somebody else was a citizen. However, I don't accept the notion that scientists are above civic status, and that scientists don't have a citizen's duty to tell the truth as they understand it and argue passionately for the things they believe in.
Since the time of Brunelleschi, virtually every government has adopted some form of patent system, in which the government grants an inventor certain benefits in exchange for the public disclosure of his or her invention. Almost always, these benefits take the form of rights backed by the legal authority of the state that permit the inventor to control use of the invention.
Founded in October 2000, Ardesta is focused on investing in small tech. The firm has created or invested in 15 companies, including Angstrovision, Discera, Handylab, Ion Optics, Konarka, MesoSystems, Micronics, Phoenix Bioscience, Sensicast, Sensicore, Therafuse, and Translume. In addition to financial capital, Ardesta supports its companies with business and technical services, including facilities, human resources, intellectual property, market research, government funding, and information technology. The firm's commitment to and focus on the field is best illustrated by its publication of Small Times. The magazine, which has a circulation of more than 25,000, provides daily news about the business of MEMs, microsystems, and nanotechnology.
Although plentiful funds have been awarded by the federal government through the various governmental agencies that are part of the National Nanotechnology Initiative, a company should consider the impact of pursuing government grants to further its nanotechnology-related research. Under the Bayh-Dole Act, universities and small business entities can retain intellectual property ownership rights in federally funded research. The government retains a royalty-free license to any patented technology that is federally funded, although this has very rarely (if ever) been used. Any transfer or acquisition of these patent rights requires compliance with certain formalities and can impact or interfere with the growth of a company or its exit strategy.
As an emerging technology, many of the patent applications that claim aspects of nanotechnology will be filed by universities through their technology-transfer offices. Development of the inventions that are disclosed and claimed will have been supported by any of a variety of government grants. In the United States, much of the funding for nanotechnology has been coordinated through the National Nanotechnology Initiative, an umbrella organization that cooperates with some twenty-five government agencies to harmonize efforts in promoting nanotechnology. Since its inception in 2001, over 6.5 billion has been invested in the organization.
Of course, none of this has happened yet. And it is impossible to say when it might. The culture of nanotechnology research is partly to blame. To compete against more proven areas of research and development such as information technology and biotechnology for government grants, venture capital, and investment capital, nanotechnology advocates have had to make big, bold promises. But unlike the early days of information technology and biotechnology, technology is leading science, not the other way around. In other words, investors are betting on companies based on business plans rather than bodies of knowledge.
Getting The Internet Grant
Get All The Support And Guidance You Need To Get The Money You Need For Your Business! This Book Is One Of The Most Valuable Resources In The World When It Comes To Tips On Negotiating With Venture Capitalists And The Government To Start A Huge Internet Business!