10x Your Memory Power
The state of the available molecule and cluster simulation programs can be described as follows the construction of a molecule occurs under strict ab initio rules, i.e., no free parameters will be given which must later be fitted to experiment instead, the Schrodinger equation is derived and solved for the determination of eigenenergies and eigenfunctions in a strictly deterministic way. The maximum manageable molecular size has some 100 constituent atoms. The limitation is essentially set by the calculation time and memory capacity (in order to prevent difficulties, semi-empirical approximations are also used. This is done at the expense of the accuracy). Results of these calculations are
We have so far implied that at the nanoscale ordinary matter often displays surprising properties that can be exploited to increase computer speed and memory capacity and to manufacture materials that are stronger, lighter, and smarter by orders of magnitude. The underlying principles for nanoscale devices are significantly different than ordinary semiconductor techniques because the systems are so small that quantum effects govern their behavior. Recent developments in surface microscopy, silicon
Models of associative memory in neural net computer simulations may be bolstered by the historical glorification of learning per se, and learning is important for biological success. Structural correlates of learning in mammalian brain (discussed in Chapter 4) appear to involve strengthening of specific synapses brought about by a dynamic reorganization of the neuronal cytoskeleton. However, as Jaynes observes, learning and consciousness are separate problems. AI systems can learn, but they clearly are not conscious. Information may be perceived in human consciousness, exist in short term memory, but fail to be stored in long term memory-hence no learning occurs. Certain drugs, including some anesthetics and tranquilizers, specifically block long term memory storage and retrieval in conscious patients. Thus consciousness constitutes more than learning.
Memory processes have traditionally been divided into two classes short term and long term. Short term memory, or working memory, is apparently how we remember telephone numbers from the time we look them up in the directory until we dial them. Long term memory or reference memory is used in recording information for long term reference. Short term or working memory is thought to be of relatively small capacity with a maximum of 5 to 9 items at any one time. It is labile and easily disrupted if attention is diverted and it automatically erases within minutes. Continual verbal rehearsal counteracts erasure and re-enters the contents as long term memory. Once laid down, long term memory can endure for a long time perhaps an individual's lifetime. Long term memory has a large capacity, and difficulty in recalling specific items arise not because memory traces fade, but rather because their address is lost. Well practiced access routes to long term memory items include nmemonics, easily...
John O'Keefe and Andrew Speakman (1986) at the University College of London have completed a series of experiments on the activity of rat hippocampal neurons while the animals were performing spatial working memory tasks. These and other results suggest a hippocampal cognitive map in which the representation of place in an environment is distributed across the surface of the
Such procedures would have special utility in analyzing the structure of tissue in the brain. Unlike, say, muscle or liver tissue, the function of brain tissue depends on the detailed three-dimensional structure of intertwined cells and their interfaces. The freezing process is far too slow to stop such dynamic processes as action potentials and synaptic transmission short-term memory, however, is suspected to involve chemical modification of the neurons, and long-term memory is believed to involve the growth and modification of neuronal structures, particularly synapses 15 . At the modest freezing rates possible in substantial pieces of tissue, ice crystals may be expected to nucleate and grow in the intercellular fluid, displacing the cell membranes as they do so 16 . Electron micrographs, however, show that synapses (like many intercellular junctions) involve complementary structures on both sides of the
Attention and memory enhancement technologies will be built upon computer-based cognitive rehabilitation technologies that are already available, as indicated in an NIH Consensus Statement (1998) Cognitive exercises, including computer-assisted strategies, have been used to improve specific neuropsychological processes, predominantly attention, memory, and executive skills. Both randomized controlled studies and case reports have documented the success of these interventions using intermediate outcome measures. Certain studies using global outcome measures also support the use of computer-assisted exercises in cognitive rehabilitation.
Improvements in human cognition and communication will also follow a path of higher integration and increased functionality. The exciting prospect is that the convergent technologies encompass the three major improvement paths external, human-machine interface, and internal. This breadth should make it possible to pursue a more complete system solution to a particular need. If better night vision is desired, the convergent technologies could make it possible to trade a biological chemical approach of modifying the photoreceptors in the eye, a micro nano-optoelectronic imager external to the eye, or a hybrid of the two. Memory enhancement is an important element of improving human cognition, and perhaps convergent technologies could be used to build on work that reports using external electrical
Cytoplasmic microtubules and centrioles are organizing centers which could behave like the singularities described by Winfree and Strogatz. Dynamic activities of the cytoskeleton may release diffusing waves of calcium ions which can alter the nature of surrounding cytoplasm by sol-gel transformations (Chapter 5). Coding by microtubule associated proteins (MAPs) and other factors could result in reaction-diffusion patterns specific to the dynamic state of the organizing center. Such patterns could suffice as short term memory in cells ranging from simple protozoa to human brain neurons. Another type of interactive, 3 dimensional pattern with interesting properties is the hologram.
Advancing our society further necessitates a better integration between the inherent and external abilities. For example, interfacing computers with humans need not require keyboard and mouse ongoing efforts advance utilization of speech interfaces. But ultimately, it would be desirable to directly interface with the human brain and other organs. This will require further advances in elucidating the fundamental biological mechanisms through which humans think, memorize, sense, communicate, and act. Understanding these mechanisms will allow us to (a) modify our inherent abilities where natural evolution does not feel any pressure for improvement and (b) design interfaces that connect our inherent abilities with external abilities.
The innate limitations of human short-term memory are irrelevant due to the synergistic reliance upon external working memory, which is embedded in everything around us. Short-term memory is working memory that works to retain sensory information presented by the mechanism of attention. No human being can hold many concepts in his head at one time. If he is dealing with more than a few, he must have some way to store and order these in an external medium, preferably a medium that can provide him with spatial patterns to associate the ordering, e.g., an ordered list of possible courses of action. Increase the size and capability of working memory. Deliberate consideration of the items in external working memory can be called to mind upon demand. Material is lost from short-term memory in two ways it will not be committed to long-term memory if interference takes place or time decay occurs. One of the by-products related to the limitations of short-term memory is that there is great...
The progress of information technology depends critically on the development of new materials for high density optical and magnetic memory storage. The last decade has seen a great research effort in the case of optical data storage, geared towards development of bit-oriented 3D, or multilayered, optical memories based on a variety of materials. 3D media promises a dramatic increase in memory capacity as the storage density scales as 1 2 and 1 3, where l is the wavelength of the reading beam, for 2D and 3D optical memories, respectively 221 . Rentzepis et al. 222 explained the approach of bit-oriented 3D optical memory based on two-photon writing for the first time. It was shown that simultaneous absorption of two photons from overlapping laser beams led to excitation of the photochromic molecule, spirobenzopyrane, which was molecularly dispersed in a polymeric matrix. The intersection of the two laser beams at different spots in the material led to spatially resolved photochemical...
This data storage capacity is astronomical by today's standards, exceeding the present combined storage capacity of every computer in the world. The problem with capacity advances, however, is that the marvelous gains have been temporary people are quick to find new uses for expanded memory capacity and fill it quickly. The libraries and software described here are based on present-day trends the needs and wants of twenty-first century society will doubtless make these projections seem naive. The components described will occupy less than a tenth of one percent of the Companion's memory, leaving the rest free for a lifetime of use. A self-integrity system consisting of dedicated computers and software keeps tabs on the Companion's battery condition, structural integrity, available memory capacity, and security status. It will automatically alert a network-based emergency center if it or its owner comes to harm. If it is lost or stolen, the personal data contained inside can be...
Occasionally patients have reported awareness or recall during anesthesia, an abhorrent event to both patient and anesthetist. Research into this area has illuminated the mechanisms of memory consolidation and led to specific amnesia producing anesthetic drugs. Accordingly, awareness and recall during anesthesia is currently exceedingly rare. In an excellent review of anesthesia and memory processes, Cherkin and Harroun (1971) described a two-stage theory of memory which postulated that information is first perceived and stored in an unstable dynamic form (short-term memory), which may then be consolidated into a stable physical memory trace (long-term memory). Perception and short-term memory storage may constitute awareness, but do not necessarily cause a physiological response or become long-term memory to produce postoperative recall. Figure 7.4 Sensory information may be perceived and register short term memory and awareness. A second step which takes a finite period of time...
Download Instructions for Memory Professor System
Memory Professor System will be instantly available for you to download right after your purchase. No shipping fees, no delays, no waiting to get started.