Simultaneous Cross Linking Polymerization

Simultaneous cross-linking polymerization allows one to prepare gel network in a single step in which polymerization as well as cross-linking processes occur simultaneously 144-148 . In these polymerizations, apart from monomer, a cross-linking agent (functionality > 3) is used to allow three-dimensional network formation. In such polymerization process, the free radicals formed in the initiation step of the reaction tend to react with monomer and cross-linker molecules to obtain polymeric...

Drug Delivery Applications Of Nanogels

Despite availability of several potent agents against various diseases, their effective delivery remains a major challenge. Several issues such as solubility, stability, specificity, sustained availability, penetrability across anatomical and physiological barriers, nonspecific toxicity, and so on, limit the successful transformation of these agents into drugs. Recent advances in nanotechnology offer many strategies to address the various problems associated with drug delivery. Nanostructures,...

Nanowireassisted Gene Delivery

The use of synthetic systems for delivering genetic material into cells has several advantages over viral delivery, including ease of production and reduced risk of cytotoxicity and immunogenicity 41,42 . Previously introduced nonviral gene delivery methods, such as liposomes, polymers, and gold particles, are limited in transfection effectiveness due to difficulties controlling their properties. Nanowires chemically functionalized with biomolecules, however, offer degrees of freedom...

Localizing Nanoparticle Concentrations

After the nanoparticles have been concentrated by means of molecular targeting, magnetic targeting, direct injection, and so on, it is important to map the foci of localized nanoparticle concentrations and the overall nanoparticle density distribution in tissue. Such a map provides a powerful diagnostic tool by detecting the abnormal localized presence of receptors expressed by tumor cells through molecular targeting 13,16,17 , magnetic targeting 18,19 , mechanical targeting of compromised...

Optical Coherence Tomography

Optical coherence tomography OCT is a novel nonioinizing imaging method that uses differential scattering and absorption of light waves for different tissue types. OCT images of biological tissues are generated with 10- to 15- m resolution. The quality of Figure 7.2. Radiographs of mouse hind legs before and after gold nanoparticle 2.7 g Au Kg injection. a Before injection b 2 minutes after injection. Significant contrast is seen in the leg with the tumor indicated by arrow compared with the...

References

Mathews OA, Shipway AN, Stoddart JF. Dendrimers branching out from curiosities into new technologies. Prog Polym Sci 1998 23 1-56. 2. Esfand R, Tomalia DA. Poly amidoamine PAMAM dendrimers From biomimicry to drug delivery and biomedical applications. Drug Discov Today 2001 6 427-436. 3. Tomalia DA. A new class of polymers starbust dendritic macromolecules. Polym J 1985 17 117-132. 4. Tomalia DA, Durst HD. Genealogically directed synthesis Starburst cascade dendrimers and hyperbranched...

Chemical Functionalization

The ability to chemically functionalize nanowires enhances their utility in biological applications. Selectively binding ligands to the surface of nanowires allows additional control of interactions between nanowires, between nanowires and surfaces, and between cells and nanowires, as well as control of the wires' optical characteristics. We have built on prior knowledge of surface chemistry on planar metallic films 26-28 to selectively functionalize both single- and multicomponent nanowires....

Contributors I

Bader, Materials Science Division and Center for Nanoscale Materials, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois Liaohai Chen, Biosciences Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois Seok-Hwan Chung, Materials Science Division and Center for Nanoscale Materials, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois Edward J. Felton, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland Axel Hoffmann, Materials Science Division and Center for...