Indomethacin Cisplatin Calcitonin Doxorubicine

Indomethacin is an anti-inflammatory drug with serious side effects on the gastrointestinal tract. Encapsulation of the drug into nanocapsules allowed the therapeutic activity of the drug to be maintained while eliminating side effects 839 . Freeze-drying the suspension of indomethacin-loaded nanocapsules provided a dosage form that was stable over several years. The physical stability and inhibitory activity of the indomethacin nanocapsules on inflammation and platelet aggregation were...

Concluding Remarks

A comprehensive review has been given of the advances in the area of nanocapsules. The outline of the theoretical background, including the energy levels, the quantum effects, the magic effects, the surfaces interfaces, and the metastable phases in nanocapsules have been represented. The most applicable nanoencapsulation procedures, including physical, chemical, physicochemical, and mechanical techniques, have been introduced. The physical properties, including optical, electronic, magnetic,...

Chemical Vapor Deposition

The CVD process is a method of chemical vapor reaction which utilizes the evaporation of volatile metal compounds and chemical reactions to form the compounds desired and the rapid cooling in gas atmospheres to result in the formation of nanoparticles nanocapsules. The nanoparticles nanocapsules produced by CVD have several advantages, like high purity, high uniformity, small particle size, narrow size distribution, good dispersal, and high chemical reaction activity. CVD is suitable for...

Solid State Reactions

Solid-state reactions offer the possibility of generating nano-particles by controlled phase transformations or reactions of solid materials. The advantage of this technology is its simple production route. The solid-state reaction technique is a convenient, inexpensive, and effective preparation method of monodisperse oxide nanoparticles nanocapsules in high yield. Controlled growth of nanoparticles and their self-assembly into one-, two-, three-dimensional arrays by chemical methods are...

Titanium and Titanium Alloys

Titanium is one of the most important materials in implan-tology. Therefore, many investigations with nanoanalyti-cal tools are performed on titanium or titanium-containing implants. Single Crystalline Model Surfaces To get insight into the basic material interactions, a defined surface has to be prepared. In the case of titanium and its natural surface oxide, these standards are TiO2 single crystals. An overview covering atomic resolution investigations with STM and SFM of different TiO2...

Other Metals

Surface structure on the atomic level, the change of it by adsorption of ethane and other model molecules, and the techniques to monitor it are presented for Pt and Rh model surfaces in 161 . A copper (110) surface with homo- and heterochiral domains of adsorbed glycine could be distinguished with submolecular resolution via STM 162 . A Co-Cr-Mo (ASTM F-75) alloy and its corrosion were investigated by SECM in NaCl solutions. Corrosion took Figure 10. SFM image of a titanium substrate coated...

Isobutylcyanoacrylate InsulinPeptides

Polyalkylcyanoacrylate or isobutylcyanoacrylate nano-capsules were used as a drug carrier also for oral administration 12, 13, 806-809 or enteral absorption 810 of insulin. The mechanism of formation of nanoparticles and nanocapsules of polyisobutyl-2-cyanoacrylate was studied 811 . The absorption of insulin was studied by measuring fasting glycemia in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats after a single administration of encapsulated insulin (100 units kg-1 ) at various sites along the...

Drug Delivery and Controlled Release

The great progress in drug delivery systems has recently been made in the treatment of a variety of diseases. Targeting delivery of drugs to the diseased lesions is one of the most important aspects of the drug delivery system. To convey a sufficient dose of drug to the lesion, suitable carriers of drugs are needed. Nano- and microparticle carriers have important potential applications for the administration of therapeutic molecules. Nanocapsules, which are ultrafine oily droplet-coated...

Magnetic Properties

The magnetic properties of carbon-coated iron and iron carbide nanocapsules, synthesized by arc discharge of carbon rods, were studied 596 . These nanocapsules consist of a-Fe, y-Fe, and Fe3C. Their coercive force was larger than that of bulk a-iron, being ascribed to the small particle size. Iron particles encaged in carbon nanocapsules were produced by the carbon arc-discharge method 597 . Soot, collarette, and cathode samples were characterized by Moss-bauer spectroscopy and magnetic...

Nanosensor Fabrication 41 Fabrication of Nanofiber Probes

This section discusses the protocols and instrumental systems involved in the fabrication of fiber-optic nanoprobes. Two methods are generally used for preparing the nanofiber tips. The so-called heat-and-pull method is the most commonly used. This method consists of local heating of a glass fiber using a laser or a filament, and subsequently pulling the fiber apart. The shape of the nanofiber tips obtained depends on controllable experimental parameters such as the temperature and the timing...

In VitroIn Vivo Studies

The influence of three different enzymes (amylase, pepsin, and esterase) on the stability of polybutylcyanoacrylate nanoparticles was studied as an in vitro investigation using side-by-side diffusion cells 928 . In vitro resistance of tumor cells to doxorubicin was fully circumvented by using doxorubicin-loaded nanospheres, consisting of biodegradable polyisohexylcyanoacrylate polymers of 300 nm diameter and containing 2.83 mg of doxorubicin per 31.5 mg of polymer 929 . The in vitro release...

For Layerbylayer Assembly

Spin coating, a technique used for casting chemical layers onto a rotating substrate, has been used extensively to prepare thin films for diverse industrial applications such as photolithography 100 , light emission 101, 102 , nuclear track detection 103 , and gas sensing 104, 105 . Since the 1950s, monolayer film formation dynamics by spin-coating has been studied both experimentally and theoretically. Recently, ultra-thin multiplayer films have attracted much interest because of their wide...

Pdms

The procedures for fabricating PDMS stamps. Reprinted with permission from 160 , Y. Xia, Ann. Rev. Mater. Sci. 28, 153 1998 . 1998, Annual Reviews. immersion of a substrate in the solution containing a ligand reactive toward the surface, or by exposure of the substrate to the vapor of a reactive species. The self-assembled multilayer can be formed by electrostatic layer-by-layer assembly process via the alternate adsorption of oppositely charged...

Coacervation Phase Separation

Coacervation-phase separation is a method to use a coacervation-inducing agent to reach the coacervation-phase separation during after the solvent evaporation to form the microcapsules or the nanocapsules. The coating can be controlled by changing the parameters during the process, so that the drug content, particle size distribution, biomedical properties, etc. of the microcapsules nanocapsules can be controlled. This procedure has been employed widely for preparation of microcapsules...