Chemical Methods

The chemical methods are useful fabrication methods for the mass production of the nanoparticles and the nanocapsules, compared to the physical methods. It is very typical that during the chemical methods, some chemical reactions occur, accompanying the formation of nano-particles/nanocapsules. Chemical methods for preparation of nanoparticles and nanocapsules include chemical gas reaction [i.e., the chemical vapor deposition (CVD)], chemical vapor condensation (CVC), solid-state reaction, sol-gel, precipitation, hydrothermal process, solvent process, latex process, oxidation process, polymerization, etc. Different chemical methods have different procedures with different chemical reactions at various steps of the synthesis of nanoparticles/nanocapsules. Thus the abundance of chemical methods could be employed to synthesize many kinds of nanoparticles/nanocapsules with various shapes, morphologies, phases, structures, sizes, etc., for different kinds of materials, varying from metals, to oxides, ceramics, organics, etc. The advantages of these chemical methods are high purity, high uniformity, small particle size, narrow size distribution, good dispersal, good chemical homogeneity, high chemical reaction activity, and structural/composition uniformity. The chemical methods are also convenient, inexpensive, and effective for preparation of nanoparticles/nanocapsules in high yield.

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