Conclusions

(1) Nano self-assembly has been described as an approach to design organized films that contain different polymer, protein, dye, and nanoparticle monolayers in precise locations perpendicular to the surface. The films are amorphous in plane but organized in the third direction with a precision of a few nanometers. Surfaces, porous carriers, and fibers of any dimension, curvature, or complexity may be covered by the self-assembled films. A layer-by-layer assembly is an easy and general fabrication process. It does not demand a high purity of components. It can be automated and scaled-up for mass production.

(2) Soft lithography and conventional lithography are two approaches to realize the patterning of self-assembled thin films for device fabrication. The combination of conventional lithography and nano self-assembly has higher precision and reproducibility than soft lithography. Since layer-by-layer self-assembly and lithography techniques are mature processes and lithography is widely applied to the modern semiconductor industry, a combinative technique will be economical and suitable for mass production. By just following the traditional process, the nanostructures comprised of nano building blocks can be realized. As it reacts in semiconductor industry, the process results in such a high reproducibility that distinct patterns can be created in almost all chips on the wafer.

(3) Polymer microelectronics/optoelectronics is an emerging field of research and development with huge potential commercialization market. Nano self-assembly and other nanofabrication techniques will open new approaches to nanoelectronics. Nano self-assembly will be one of the dominant techniques in realizing commercial polymer microelectronics/ optoelectronics with high efficiency and low cost. Thus, polymer microelectronics/optoelectronics could be the revolution of solid-state microelectronics in low-end applications.

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