Introduction

The structure and properties of the nanocapsules can be characterized by various spectroscopic techniques that we used to study the bulk materials. In this section, we shall introduce briefly the following techniques: X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscope for characterizing the structures, Raman scattering spectroscopy for obtaining information on vibration and rotation of molecules, XPS for revealing binding energy of electrons, Mossbauer spec-troscopy for detecting hyperfine fields, and vibrating sample magnetometer or superconducting quantum interference devices for measuring magnetic properties of the materials. We shall also give a brief description of several novel microscopies, including scanning tunneling microscopy, atomic force microscopy, and magnetic force microscopy, which has been used to solve processing and materials problems in a wide range of technologies affecting electronics, telecommunications, biological, chemical, automotive, aerospace, and energy industries. The materials being investigated by these microscopies include thin and thick film coatings, ceramics, composites, glasses, synthetic and biological membranes, metals, polymers, and semiconductors. It is evident that these novel techniques can be applicable for characterization of the nanocapsules. In this section, we shall describe the common use of each technique and then its characteristics for investigation of the nanocapsules.

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