Nonequilibrium Growth and Admixed Polyion Complexes

When the polyion assembly was performed at equilibrium conditions, a saturated adsorption was achieved at every deposition step and a careful intermediate sample washing removed all nonspecific polyion adsorption. Next, one has the permanent increment of the multilayer growth (i.e., the film mass and thickness increased linearly with the cycles of adsorption). In some cases, we encountered the situation when the film growth step exponentially increased with the number of adsorbed layers. We recognized such conditions as nonstable and usually reached a stable growth step by optimizing the solution pH or by decreasing the polyion concentration.

As we previously discussed, one can increase the speed of growth from 1-2 nm to 5-10 nm in 10 min by increasing the ionic strength of the polyion solutions. Another way to increase the assembly speed is by using preformed interpoly-electrolyte complexes (coacervates) [92]. The formation of

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