Response to Proteins

In the field of ultrafiltration of biological fluids such as blood, biofouling respectively membrane fouling is an important issue resulting in pore plugging, pore narrowing, and cake deposition. Hydrophobic polysulfone membrane interactions with hen egg lysozyme were investigated with the surface force apparatus and the topography with SFM [207]. Forces between cellulose acetate films and human serum albumin, HSA, respectively ribonuclease A, RNase, were investigated in the same way [208]. The comparison of forces between the proteins fibronectin, fibrino-gen, and albumin and a hydrophilic cellulosic membrane, a hydrophilic glass surface, and a hydrophobic polystyrene surface showed that the forces on hydrophobic surfaces are an order of magnitude larger than the ones on hydrophilic surfaces. Additionally, the influence of surface structure on hydrophilic surfaces was described [209].

Collagen on native and oxidized poly (ethylene tereph-thalate) (PET) was investigated with the aid of X-ray pho-toelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Time-dependent differences were observed in stability at times between 5 s and 5 min with an easy-to-disturb surface structure (scan ranges from 2 to 5 /m) as monitored via SFM. The investigations were done in air, leaving the results ambiguous, as the topographical information can be altered by drying leading to different structures and orientations on the surface [210].

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