Sensor Layers and Bioreactors

The protein films can be made very thin and contain precisely 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, or more monolayers, which is important for biosensor elements. The deposition of enzyme/polyion multilayers onto carriers of biological reactors permits an increase in their output proportionate to the number of immobilized enzyme layers. Sequential 2-3 step catalytic reactions can be realized in multiprotein films (cascade bioreactions). Enzymes in the polyion films are stabilized and could work with nonaqueous substrate solutions. Polyions, which keep together enzyme layers in the films, can be doped by vitamins (co-factors), specific dyes, or nano-particles of metal catalysts to mediate reaction activity.

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