Surface Modifications

• Surface wettability, hardness, magnetic properties, lubrication, biocompatibility can be modified by self-assembly of ultrathin nanostructured coating (e.g., plastic hardening by coating with Al2O3 or ZrO2 nano-particle multilayer; precise A/4 dye-coating of lenses and optical fibers, and other antireflection coating, paper processing). In biomaterials the assembly is applicable directly to tissue surfaces.

• The concept of a "smart" surface may be realized by including functional proteins in biocompatible films (e.g., lipases destroying harmful lipids in contact with biological liquids).

• Filter layer with calibrated nano-pores.

• Nanoparticle catalytic multilayers.

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