Quantum Consequences for the Macroworld

Chemical matter is made of atoms, which are constructed according to the strange rules of nanophysics. The stability of atoms against radiative collapse was first predicted in the Bohr hydrogen atom model, by the arbitrary imposition of a quantum condition on angular momentum. The Schrodinger equation explains the stability of chemical matter in more detail. An essential additional principle is the Pauli statement that only one electron can occupy a fully described quantum state. This is the...

Nanophysics built into the properties of bulk matter

Even if we can describe the size scale of 1 mm - 10 nm as one of classical scaling, before distinctly size-related anomalies are strongly apparent, a nanotechnologist must appreciate that many properties of bulk condensed matter already require concepts of nanophysics for their understanding. This might seem obvious, in that atoms themselves are completely nanophysical in their structure and behavior Beyond this, however, the basic modern understanding of semiconductors, involving energy bands,...

Nanophysics and Nanotechnology

An Introduction to Modern Concepts in Nanoscience WILEY-VC H Verlag GmbH & Co. KG a A Othmer Department of Chemical & Biological Sciences & Engineering, Polytechnic University Brooklyn Edward L. Wolf ewolf duke.poly.edu All books published by Wiley-VC H are carefully produced. Nevertheless, authors, editors, and publisher do not warrant the information contained in these books, including this book, to be free of errors. Readers are advised to keep in mind that statements, data,...

Molecular Assembler Concept In Nano Physics

Technology has to do with the application of scientific knowledge to the economic (profitable) production of goods and services. This book is concerned with the size or scale of working machines and devices in different forms of technology. It is particularly concerned with the smallest devices that are possible, and equally with the appropriate laws of nanometer-scale physics nanophysics, which are available to accurately predict behavior of matter on this invisible scale. Physical behavior at...

Arrays of optical traps

A sophisticated scheme of interfering focused laser light beams has allowed creation and manipulation of 3D optically trapped structures 35 . Figure 3.13 schematically shows the nature of this optical trap and some of the configurations of dielectric spheres that have been stabilized. In Fig 3.13 (A) a detail schematic of the waist of the four-fold beam, which is shown stabilizing an array of eight dielectric spheres. (B) shows six other arrangements of identical dielectric spheres which were...

Scaling Relations Illustrated by a Simple Harmonic Oscillator

Consider a simple harmonic oscillator (SHO) such as a mass on a spring, as described above, and imagine shrinking the system in three dimensions. As stated, mal3and KaL, so a) (K m)y2al1. It is easy to see that the spring constant scales as I if the spring is taken a (massless) rod of cross section A and length I described by Young's modulus Y (F A)I(AL L). Under a compressive force F, AL -(LY A)F, so that the spring constant K LY A , aL. A more detailed analysis of the familiar coiled spring...

Biological Examples of Nanomotors and Nanodevices

Biology provides examples of nanometer scale motors and electrical devices, which can be seen as limits of smallness. If nature can make these (only recently perceived) nanoscale machines, why, some ask, cannot human technology meet and eventually exceed these results It is certainly a challenge. The contraction of muscle occurs through the concerted action of large numbers of muscle myosin molecules, which walk along actin filaments in animal tissue. Other sorts of motors rotate flagella,...

Moores

The computer chip is certainly one of the preeminent accomplishments of 20th century technology, making vastly expanded computational speed available in smaller size and at lower cost. Computers and email communication are almost universally available in modern society. Perhaps the most revolutionary results of computer technology are the universal availability of email to the informed and at least minimally endowed, and magnificent search engines such as Google. Without an unexpected return to...

References

1 For more details on this topic, see A. Guinier and R. Jullien, The Solid State, (Oxford, New York, 1989). 2 P. Vettiger, M. Despont, U. Drechsler, U. Durig, W. Haberle, M.I. Lutwyche, H.E. Rothuizen, R. Stutz, R. Widmer, and G.K. Binnig, IBM J. Res. Develop. 44, 323 (2000). 3 E. A. Rietman, Molecular Engineering of Nanosystems, (Springer, New York, 2001), p. 55. 4 K. Eric Drexler, Nanosystems, (Wiley, New York, 1992). 5 Image courtesy of Zettl Research Group, University of California at...

Nanoscale Elements in Traditional Technologies

From the present knowledge of materials it is understood that the beautiful colors of stained glass windows originate in nanometer scale metal particles present in the glass. These metal particles have scattering resonances for light of specific wavelengths, depending on the particle size L. The particle size distribution, in turn, will depend upon the choice of metal impurity, its concentration, and the heat treatment of the glass. When the metallic particles in the glass are illuminated, they...

Scaling the xylophone

The familiar xylophone produces musical sounds when its keys a linear array of rectangular bars of dimensions axbxc, with progressively longer key lengths c producing lower audio frequencies are struck by a mallet and go into transverse vibration perpendicular to the smallest, a, dimension. The traditional middle C in music corresponds to 256 Hz. If the size scale of the xylophone key is reduced to the micrometer scale, as has recently been achieved, using the semiconductor technology, and the...

Nanopore Filters

The original nanopore Nuclepore filters 10,11 are sheets of polycarbonate of 6-11 im thickness with closely spaced arrays of parallel holes running through the sheet. The filters are available with pore sizes rated from 0.015 Jim - 12.0 im 15 nm - 12 000nm . The holes are made by exposing the polycarbonate sheets to perpendicular flux of ionizing a particles, which produce linear paths of atomic scale damage in the polycarbonate. Controlled chemical etching is then employed to establish and...