Physicsbased Experimental Approaches to Nanofabrication and Nanotechnology 123

7.1 Silicon Technology: the INTEL-IBM Approach to Nanotechnology 124

7.1.1 Patterning, Masks, and Photolithography 124

7.1.2 Etching Silicon 125

7.1.3 Defining Highly Conducting Electrode Regions 126

7.1.4 Methods of Deposition of Metal and Insulating Films 126

7.2 Lateral Resolution (Linewidths) Limited by Wavelength of Light, now 180 nm 128

7.2.1 Optical and x-ray Lithography 128

7.2.2 Electron-beam Lithography 129

7.3 Sacrificial Layers, Suspended Bridges, Single-electron Transistors 129

7.4 What is the Future of Silicon Computer Technology? 131

7.5 Heat Dissipation and the RSFQ Technology 132

7.6 Scanning Probe (Machine) Methods: One Atom at a Time 136

7.7 Scanning Tunneling Microscope (STM) as Prototype Molecular Assembler 138

7.7.1 Moving Au Atoms, Making Surface Molecules 138

7.7.2 Assembling Organic Molecules with an STM 141

7.8 Atomic Force Microscope (AFM) Arrays 142

7.8.1 Cantilever Arrays by Photolithography 142

7.8.2 Nanofabrication with an AFM 143

7.9 Fundamental Questions: Rates, Accuracy and More 144

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