Quantum Consequences for the Macroworld

5.1 Chemical Table of the Elements 75

5.2 Nano-symmetry, Di-atoms, and Ferromagnets 76

5.2.1 Indistinguishable Particles, and their Exchange 76

5.2.2 The Hydrogen Molecule, Di-hydrogen: The Covalent Bond 78

5.3 More Purely Nanophysical Forces: van der Waals, Casimir, and Hydrogen Bonding 80

5.3.1 The Polar and van der Waals Fluctuation Forces 81

5.3.2 The Casimir Force 84

5.3.3 The Hydrogen Bond 88

5.4 Metals as Boxes of Free Electrons: Fermi Level, DOS, Dimensionality 89

5.5 Periodic Structures (e.g. Si, GaAs, InSb, Cu): Kronig-Penney Model for Electron Bands and Gaps 92

5.6 Electron Bands and Conduction in Semiconductors and Insulators 97

5.7 Hydrogenic Donors and Acceptors 102

5.8 More about Ferromagnetism, the Nanophysical Basis of Disk Memory 103

5.9 Surfaces are different, Schottky barrier thickness W = [2£s0VB/eND]1/2 106

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