What are Limits to Smallness

3.1 Particle (Quantum) Nature of Matter: Photons, Electrons, Atoms, Molecules 27

3.2 Biological Examples of Nanomotors and Nanodevices 28

3.2.1 Linear Spring Motors 29

3.2.2 Linear Engines on Tracks 30

3.2.3 Rotary Motors 33

3.2.4 Ion Channels, the Nanotransistors of Biology 36

3.3 How Small can you Make it? 38

3.3.1 What are the Methods for Making Small Objects? 38

3.3.2 How Can you See What you Want to Make? 39

X I Contents

3.3.3 How Can you Connect it to the Outside World? 41

3.3.4 If you Cant See it or Connect to it, Can you Make it Self-assemble and Work on its Own? 41

3.3.5 Approaches to Assembly of Small Three-dimensional Objects 41

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