Shouyuan Chemical Mail

International Standard Book Number-10: 0-8493-7563-0 (Hardcover) International Standard Book Number-13: 978-0-8493-7563-7 (Hardcover)

This book contains information obtained from authentic and highly regarded sources. Reprinted material is quoted with permission, and sources are indicated. A wide variety of references are listed. Reasonable efforts have been made to publish reliable data and information, but the author and the publisher cannot assume responsibility for the validity of all materials or for the consequences of their use.

No part of this book may be reprinted, reproduced, transmitted, or utilized in any form by any electronic, mechanical, or other means, now known or hereafter invented, including photocopying, microfilming, and recording, or in any information storage or retrieval system, without written permission from the publishers.

For permission to photocopy or use material electronically from this work, please access www.copyright.com (http:// www.copyright.com/) or contact the Copyright Clearance Center, Inc. (CCC) 222 Rosewood Drive, Danvers, MA 01923, 978-750-8400. CCC is a not-for-profit organization that provides licenses and registration for a variety of users. For organizations that have been granted a photocopy license by the CCC, a separate system of payment has been arranged.

Trademark Notice: Product or corporate names may be trademarks or registered trademarks, and are used only for identification and explanation without intent to infringe.

Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data

Handbook of nanoscience, engineering, and technology / editors, William A. Goddard, III ... [et al.]. p. cm. -- (The Electrical engineering handbook series) Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 0-8493-7563-0 (alk. paper)

1. Nanotechnology--Handbooks, manuals, etc. I. Goddard, William A., 1937- II. Title. III. Series. T174.7.H36 2007

620'.5--dc22 2006102977

Visit the Taylor & Francis Web site at http://www.taylorandfrancis.com

and the CRC Press Web site at http://www.crcpress.com

Dedication

For my wife Karen, for her dedication and love, and for Sophie and Maxwell.

Donald W. Brenner

For my dearest wife Marina, and for my children Lydia and Alexander.

Sergey E. Lyshevski

To my wife, Kathy, and my family for their loving support and patience.

Gerald J. Iafrate

Preface

The first edition of the Handbook of Nanoscience, Engineering, and Technology was published in early 2003, reflecting many of the nanoscience possibilities envisioned by Richard Feynman in his 1959 address, "There is Plenty of Room at the Bottom." In his address, Feynman speculated about what might be on the molecular scale, and challenged the technical community "to find ways of manipulating and controlling things on a small scale." Inspired by the vision of Feynman, nanoscience is today defined as the study of material manipulation and control at the molecular scale, that is, a spatial scale of the order of a few hundred angstroms, less than one-thousandth of the width of a human hair. The extraordinary feature of nanoscience is that it allows for the tailoring and combining of the physical, biological, and engineering properties of matter at a very low level of nature's architectural building blocks. Critical to progress in nanoscience has been the stunning new achievements in fabrication, chemical processing, and nano resolution tool development in the last five decades, driven in large part by the microelectronics revolution. These developments today allow for molecular level tailoring and control of materials not heretofore possible except through naturally occurring atomic processes.

Over 40 years later, driven by federal executive orders of Presidents W.J. Clinton and G.W. Bush, and a recently enacted Twenty-First Century Nanotechnology Research and Development Act, the visionary challenge put forth by Feynman in 1959 is well on its way to becoming a reality. As a testimonial to this reality, the first edition of the Handbook included broad categories of innovative nanoscience, engineering, and technology that was emerging in the 2003 timeframe. The present 2007 second edition extends the portfolio of innovative nano areas further, including additional chapters on textiles, nanomanufacturing, spintronics, molecular electronics, aspects of bionanotechnology, and nanoparticles for drug delivery; as well, this edition updates select chapters which appeared in the first edition.

Acknowledgments

Dr. Brenner would like to thank his current and former colleagues for their intellectual stimulation and personal support. Professor Brenner also wishes to thank the Office of Naval Research, the Army Research Office, the National Science Foundation, the Air Force Office of Scientific Research, the NASA-Ames and NASA-Langley Research Centers, and the Department of Energy for supporting his research group over the last 13 years.

Dr. Lyshevski acknowledges the many people who contributed to this book. First, thanks go to all contributors, to whom I would like to express my sincere gratitude. It gives me great pleasure to acknowledge the help the editors received from many people in the preparation of this handbook. The outstanding CRC Press team, especially Nora Konopka and Helena Redshaw, helped tremendously by providing valuable feedback. Many thanks to all of you.

Dr. Iafrate acknowledges the career support and encouragement from colleagues, the Department of Defense, the University of Notre Dame, and North Carolina State University.

Editors

William A. Goddard, III obtained his Ph.D. in engineering science (minor in physics) from the California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, in October 1964, after which he joined the faculty of the chemistry department at Caltech and became a professor of theoretical chemistry in 1975. In November 1984, Goddard was honored as the first holder of the Charles and Mary Ferkel Chair in Chemistry and Applied Physics. He received the Badger Teaching Prize from the Chemistry and Chemical Engineering Division for Fall 1995. Goddard is a member of the National Academy of Sciences (U.S.) and the International Academy of Quantum Molecular Science. He was a National Science Foundation (NSF) Predoctoral Fellow (1960-1964) and an Alfred P. Sloan Foundation Fellow (1967-1969). In 1978 he received the Buck-Whitney Medal (for major contributions to theoretical chemistry in North America). In 1988 he received the American Chemical Society Award for Computers in Chemistry. In 1999 he received the Feynman Prize for Nanotechnology Theory (shared with Tahir Cagin and Yue Qi). In 2000 he received a NASA Space Sciences Award (shared with N. Vaidehi, A. Jain, and G. Rodriquez).

He is a fellow of the American Physical Society and of the American Association for the Advancement of Science. He is also a member of the American Chemical Society, the California Society, the California Catalysis Society (president for 1997-1998), the Materials Research Society, and the American Vacuum Society. He is a member of Tau Beta Pi and Sigma Xi. His activities include serving as a member of the board of trustees of the Gordon Research Conferences (1988-1994), the Computer Science and Telecommunications Board of the National Research Council (1990-1993), and the Board on Chemical Science and Technology (1980s), and a member and chairman of the board of advisors for the Chemistry Division of the NSF (1980s).

In addition, Dr. Goddard serves or has served on the editorial boards of several journals (Journal of the American Chemical Society, Journal of Physical Chemistry, Chemical Physics, Catalysis Letters, Langmuir, and Computational Materials Science). He is director of the Materials and Process Simulation Center (MSC) of the Beckman Institute at Caltech. He was the principal investigator of an NSF Grand Challenge Application Group (1992-1997) for developing advanced methods for quantum mechanics and molecular dynamics simulations optimized for massively parallel computers. He was also the principal investigator for the NSF Materials Research Group at Caltech (1985-1991). He is a cofounder (1984) of Molecular Simulations Inc., which develops and markets state-of-the-art computer software for molecular dynamics simulations and interactive graphics for applications to chemistry, biological, and materials sciences. He is also a cofounder (1991) of Schrodinger, Inc., which develops and markets state-of-the-art computer software using quantum mechanical methods for applications to chemical, biological, and materials sciences. In 1998 he cofounded Materials Research Source LLC, dedicated to development of new processing techniques for materials with an emphasis on nanoscale processing of semiconductors. In 2000 he cofounded BionomiX Inc., dedicated to predicting the structures and functions of all molecules for all known gene sequences. Goddard's research activities focus on the use of quantum mechanics and of molecular dynamics to study reaction mechanisms in catalysis (homogeneous and heterogeneous);

the chemical and electronic properties of surfaces (semiconductors, metals, ceramics, and polymers); biochemical processes; the structural, mechanical, and thermodynamic properties of materials (semiconductors, metals, ceramics, and polymers); mesoscale dynamics; and materials processing. He has published over 440 scientific articles.

Donald W. Brenner is currently a professor in the Department of Materials Science and Engineering at North Carolina State University. He received his B.S. from the State University of New York College at Fredonia in 1982 and his Ph.D. from Pennsylvania State University in 1987, both in chemistry. He joined the Theoretical Chemistry Section at the United States Naval Research Laboratory as a staff scientist in 1987, and joined the North Carolina State University faculty in 1994. His research interests focus on using atomic and mesoscale simulation and theory to understand technologically important processes and materials. Recent research areas include first-principles predictions of the mechanical properties of polycrystalline ceramics; crack dynamics; dynamics of nanotribology, tribochemistry and nanoindenta-tion; simulation of the vapor deposition and surface reactivity of covalent materials; fullerene-based materials and devices; self-assembled monolayers; simulations of shock and detonation chemistry; and potential function development. He is also involved in the development of new cost-effective virtual-reality technologies for engineering education. Professor Brenner's awards include the 2002 Feynman Award for Research in Nanotechnology (theory), the Alcoa Foundation Engineering Research Achievement Award (2000), the Veridian Medal Paper (coauthor) (1999), an Outstanding Teacher Award from the North Carolina State College of Engineering (1999), anNSF Faculty Early Career Development Award (1995), the Naval Research Laboratory Chemistry Division Young Investigator Award (1991), the Naval Research Laboratory Chemistry Division Berman Award for Technical Publication (1990), and the Xerox Award from Penn State for the best materials-related Ph.D. thesis (1987). He was the scientific cochair for the Eighth (2000) and Ninth (2001) Foresight Conferences on Molecular Nanotechnology, and is a member of the editorial boards for the journals Molecular Simulation and the Journal of Computational and Theoretical Nanoscience, as well as a member of the North Carolina State University Academy of Outstanding Teachers.

Sergey Edward Lyshevski was born in Kiev, Ukraine. He received his M.S. (1980) and Ph.D. (1987) degrees from Kiev Polytechnic Institute, both in electrical engineering. From 1980 to 1993, Dr. Lyshevski held faculty positions at the Department of Electrical Engineering at Kiev Polytechnic Institute and the Academy of Sciences of Ukraine. From 1989 to 1993, he was the Microelectronic and Electromechanical Systems Division Head at the Academy of Sciences of Ukraine. From 1993 to 2002, he was with Purdue School of Engineering as an associate professor of electrical and computer engineering. In 2002, Dr. Lyshevski joined Rochester Institute of Technology as a professor of electrical engineering. Dr. Lyshevski serves as a Full Professor Faculty Fellow at the U.S. Air Force Research Laboratories and Naval Warfare Centers. He is the author of ten books (including Logic Design of NanoICs, coauthored with S. Yanushkevich and V. Shmerko, CRC Press, 2005; Nano- and Microelectromechanical Systems: Fundamentals of Micro- and Nanoengineering, CRC Press, 2004; MEMS and NEMS: Systems, Devices, and Structures, CRC Press, 2002) and is the author or coauthor of more than 300 journal articles, handbook chapters, and regular conference papers. His current research activities are focused on molecular electronics, molecular processing platforms, nanoengineering, cognitive systems, novel organizations/architectures, new nanoelectronic devices, reconfigurable super-high-performance computing, and systems informatics. Dr. Lyshevski has made significant contributions in the synthesis, design, application, verification, and implementation of advanced aerospace, electronic, electromechanical, and naval systems. He has made more than 30 invited presentations (nationally and internationally) and serves as an editor of the CRC Press book series on Nano- and Microscience, Engineering, Technology, and Medicine.

Gerald J. Iafrate joined the faculty of North Carolina State University in August 2001. Previously, he was a professor at the University of Notre Dame; he also served as Associate Dean for Research in the College of Engineering, and as director of the newly established University Center of Excellence in Nanoscience and Technology. He has extensive experience in managing large interdisciplinary research programs. From 1989 to 1997, Dr. Iafrate served as the director of the U.S. Army Research Office (ARO). As director, he was the army's key executive for the conduct of extramural research in the physical and engineering sciences in response to Department of Defense objectives. Prior to becoming director of ARO, Dr. Iafrate was the director of electronic devices research at the U.S. Army Electronics Technology and Devices Laboratory (ETDL). Working with the National Science Foundation, he played a key leadership role in establishing the first-of-its-kind army-NSF-university consortium. He is currently a research professor of electrical and computer engineering at North Carolina State University, Raleigh, where his current interests include quantum transport in nanostructures, spontaneous emission from Bloch electron radiators, and molecular-scale electronics. Dr. Iafrate is a fellow of the IEEE, APS, and AAAS.

Contributors

S. Adiga

Department of Materials

Science and Engineering North Carolina State University Raleigh, NC

Damian G. Allis

Department of Chemistry Syracuse University Syracuse, NY

Narayan R. Aluru

Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering and Beckman Institute for Advanced Science and Technology University of Illinois Urbana, IL

D.A. Areshkin

Department of Materials

Science and Engineering North Carolina State University Raleigh, NC

Supriyo Bandyopadhyay

Department of Electrical and

Computer Engineering Virginia Commonwealth

University Richmond, VA

Carola Barrera

Department of Chemical

Engineering University of Puerto Rico-

Mayaguez Mayaguez, Puerto Rico

R. Bashir

Birck Nanotechnology

Center School of Electrical and

Computer Engineering Weldon School of Biomedical

Engineering Purdue University West Lafayette, IN

K. Bloom

Department of Biology University of North Carolina Chapel Hill, NC

Youssry Botros

Intel Corporation

A.M. Bratkovsky

Hewlett-Packard Laboratories Palo Alto, CA

Adam B. Braunschweig

California Nanosystems

Institute and the Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry University of California Los Angeles, CA

Donald W. Brenner

Department of Materials

Science and Engineering North Carolina State University Raleigh, NC

Ahmed Busnaina

Northeastern University Boston, MA

Marc Cahay

Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering and Computer Science University of Cincinnati Cincinnati, OH

Caihua Chen

Department of Electrical and

Computer Engineering University of Delaware Newark, DE

Saurabh Chhaparwal

College of Textiles North Carolina State

University Raleigh, NC

Petersen F. Curt

EM Photonics, Inc. University of Delaware Newark, DE

Supriyo Datta

School of Electrical and

Computer Engineering Purdue University West Lafayette, IN

C.W. Davis

Medicine/Cystic Fibrosis

Center University of North

Carolina Chapel Hill, NC

M.S. Diallo

Materials and Process Simulation Center Beckman Institute California Institute of

Technology Pasadena, CA and Department of Civil

Engineeering Howard University Washington, DC

William R. Dichtel

California Nanosystems

Institute and the Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry University of California Los Angeles, CA

William Dondero

College of Textiles

North Carolina State University

Raleigh, NC

James P. Durbano

EM Photonics, Inc. University of Delaware Newark, DE

N. Fedorova

College of Textiles

North Carolina State University

Raleigh, NC

Richard P. Feynman

(Deceased)

California Institute of

Technology Pasadena, CA

J.K. Fisher

Department of Biomedical

Engineering University of North Carolina Chapel Hill, NC

Kosmas Galatsis

Department of Electrical

Engineering University of California Los Angeles, CA

Tushar Ghosh

College of Textiles North Carolina State

University Raleigh, NC

Russell E. Gorga

College of Textiles North Carolina State

University Raleigh, NC

Stephen A. Habay

Department of Chemistry University of California Irvine, CA

Meredith L. Hans

Department of Materials

Science and Engineering Drexel University Philadelphia, PA

J.A. Harrison

Chemistry Department U.S. Naval Academy Annapolis, MD

S.A. Henderson

Starpharma Limited Melbourne, Victoria, Australia

Karl Hess

Beckman Institute for Advanced Science and Technology and Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering University of Illinois Urbana, IL

Juan P. Hinestroza

Department of Fiber Science Cornell University Ithaca, NY

and College of Textiles North Carolina State

University Raleigh, NC

Yanhong Hu

Department of Materials

Science and Engineering North Carolina State University Raleigh, NC

Zushou Hu

Department of Materials

Science and Engineering North Carolina State University Raleigh, NC

Michael Pycraft Hughes

School of Engineering University of Surrey Guildford, Surrey, England

Dustin K. James

Department of Chemistry Rice University Houston, TX

Jean-Pierre Leburton

Beckman Institute for Advanced Science and Technology University of Illinois Urbana, IL

Department of Biomedical

Engineering Yonsei University Won-Ju, Kang-Won, Korea

Kostantin Likharev

Stony Brook University Stony Brook, NY

Wing Kam Liu

Department of Mechanical

Engineering Northwestern University Evanston, IL

Anthony M. Lowman

Department of Materials

Science and Engineering Drexel University Philadelphia, PA

Sergey Edward Lyshevski

Department of Electrical

Engineering Rochester Institute of

Technology Rochester, NY

Joshua S. Marcus

Department of Applied Physics California Institute of

Technology Pasadena, CA

William McMahon

Beckman Institute for Advanced

Science and Technology University of Illinois Urbana, IL

Paula M. Mendes

California Nanosystems

Institute and the Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry University of California Los Angeles, CA

M. Meyyappan

NASA Ames Research Center Moffett Field, CA

Stephen Michielsen

College of Textiles North Carolina State

University Raleigh, NC

Vladimiro Mujica

Department of Chemistry Northwestern University Evanston, IL

Brian H. Northrop

California Nanosystems

Institute and the Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry University of California Los Angeles, CA

E. Timothy O'Brien

Department of Physics and

Astronomy University of North Carolina Chapel Hill, NC

Fernando E. Ortiz

EM Photonics, Inc. University of Delaware Newark, DE

Roman Ostroumov

Department of Electrical

Engineering University of California Los Angeles, CA

Mihri Ozkan

Department of Electrical

Engineering University of California Riverside, CA

Clifford W. Padgett

Department of Materials

Science and Engineering North Carolina State University Raleigh, NC

Gregory N. Parsons

Department of Chemical

Engineering North Carolina State University Raleigh, NC

Magnus Paulsson

School of Electrical and

Computer Engineering Purdue University West Lafayette, IN

Wolfgang Porod

Department of Electrical

Engineering University of Notre Dame Notre Dame, IN

B. Pourdeyhimi

College of Textiles

North Carolina State University

Raleigh, NC

Dennis W. Prather

Department of Electrical and

Computer Engineering University of Delaware Newark, DE

Dong Qian

Department of Mechanical

Engineering Northwestern University Evanston, IL

Mark A. Ratner

Department of Chemistry Northwestern University Evanston, IL

Umberto Ravaioli

Beckman Institute for Advanced Science and Technology University of Illinois Urbana, IL

Carlos Rinaldi

Department of Chemical

Engineering University of Puerto

Rico-Mayaguez Mayaguez, Puerto Rico

Mihail C. Roco

National Science Foundation and National Nanotechnology

Initiative Washington, DC

Slava V. Rotkin

Physics Department Lehigh University Bethlehem, PA

Rodney S. Ruoff

Department of Mechanical

Engineering Northwestern University Evanston, IL

Melinda Satcher

Department of Fiber Science Cornell University Ithaca, NY

Christian E. Schafmeister

Chemistry Department University of Pittsburgh Pittsburgh, PA

J.D. Schall

Department of Materials

Science and Engineering North Carolina State University Raleigh, NC

Ahmed S. Sharkawy

Department of Electrical and

Computer Engineering University of Delaware Newark, DE

Olga A. Shenderova

International Technology Center

Research Triangle Park, NC and Department of Materials Science and Engineering North Carolina State

University Raleigh, NC

Shouyuan Shi

Department of Electrical and

Computer Engineering University of Delaware Newark, DE

James T. Spencer

Department of Chemistry Syracuse University Syracuse, NY

Deepak Srivastava

NASA Ames Research Center Moffett Field, CA

Martin Staedele

Infineon Technologies Corporate Research Munich, Germany

J. Fraser Stoddart

California Nanosystems

Institute and the Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry University of California Los Angeles, CA

S.J. Stuart

Department of Chemistry Clemson University Clemson, SC

R. Superfine

Department of Physics and Astronomy University of North Carolina Chapel Hill, NC

Department of Computer Science

University of North Carolina Chapel Hill, NC

Todd Thorsen

Department of Mechanical

Engineering Massachusetts Institute of Technology Cambridge, MA

D.A. Tomalia

Dendritic Nanotechnologies, Inc. and Central Michigan University Mt. Pleasant, MI

James M. Tour

Center for Nanoscale Science and Technology Rice University Houston, TX

Blair R. Tuttle

Pennsylvania State University Behrend College Erie, PA

Trudy van der Straaten

Beckman Institute for Advanced Science and Technology University of Illinois Urbana, IL

L. Vicci

Department of Computer Science

University of North Carolina Chapel Hill, NC

Gregory J. Wagner

Department of Mechanical

Engineering Northwestern University Evanston, IL

Kang Wang

Department of Electrical

Engineering University of California Los Angeles, CA

Min-Feng Yu

Department of Mechanical and

Industrial Engineering University of Illinois Urbana, IL

Ferdows Zahid

School of Electrical and

Computer Engineering Purdue University West Lafayette, IN

Contents

Section 1 Nanotechnology Overview

1 There's Plenty of Room at the Bottom: An Invitation to Enter a New

Field of Physics Richard P. Feynman 1-1

2 Room at the Bottom, Plenty of Tyranny at the Top Karl Hess 2-1

3 National Nanotechnology Initiative — Past, Present,

Future Mihail C. Roco 3-1

Section 2 Molecular and Nanoelectronics

4 Engineering Challenges in Molecular Electronics Gregory N. Parsons 4-1

5 Molecular Electronic Computing Architectures James M. Tour and Dustin K. James 5-1

6 Nanoelectronic Circuit Architectures Wolfgang Porod 6-1

7 Molecular Computing and Processing

Platforms Sergey Edward Lyshevski 7-1

8 Spin Field Effect Transistors Supriyo Bandyopadhyay and Marc Cahay 8-1

9 Electron Charge and Spin Transport in Organic and Semiconductor Nanodevices: Moletronics and Spintronics A.M. Bratkovsky 9-1

10 Nanoarchitectonics: Advances in Nanoelectronics Kang Wang, Kosmas Galatsis, Roman Ostroumov, Mihri Ozkan, Kostantin Likharev, and Youssry Botros 10-1

11 Molecular Machines Brian H. Northrop, Adam B. Braunschweig,

Paula M. Mendes, William R. Dichtel, and J. Fraser Stoddart 11-1

Section 3 Molecular Electronics Devices

12 Molecular Conductance Junctions: A Theory and Modeling

Progress Report Vladimiro Mujica and Mark A. Ratner 12-1

13 Modeling Electronics at the Nanoscale Narayan R. Aluru, Jean-Pierre Leburton, William McMahon, Umberto Ravaioli, Slava V. Rotkin, Martin Staedele,

Trudy van der Straaten, Blair R. Tuttle, and Karl Hess 13-1

14 Resistance of a Molecule Magnus Paulsson, Ferdows Zahid, and Supriyo Datta 14-1

Section 4 Manipulation and Assembly

15 Magnetic Manipulation for the Biomedical Sciences J.K. Fisher,

L. Vicci, K. Bloom, E. Timothy O'Brien, C.W. Davis, R.M. Taylor, II, and R. Superfine 15-1

16 Nanoparticle Manipulation by Electrostatic Forces

Michael Pycraft Hughes 16-1

17 Biological- and Chemical-Mediated Self-Assembly of Artificial

Micro- and Nanostructures S.W. Lee and R. Bashir 17-1

18 Nanostructural Architectures from Molecular Building Blocks

Damian G. Allis and James T. Spencer 18-1

19 Building Block Approaches to Nonlinear and Linear Macromolecules

Stephen A. Habay and Christian E. Schafmeister 19-1

20 Introduction to Nanomanufacturing Ahmed Busnaina 20-1

21 Textile Nanotechnologies B. Pourdeyhimi, N. Fedorova, William Dondero, Russell E. Gorga, Stephen Michielsen, Tushar Ghosh, Saurabh Chhaparwal, Carola Barrera, Carlos Rinaldi, Melinda Satcher, and Juan P. Hinestroza 21-1

Section 5 Functional Structures

22 Carbon Nanotubes M. Meyyappan and Deepak Srivastava 22-1

23 Mechanics of Carbon Nanotubes Dong Qian, Gregory J. Wagner,

Wing Kam Liu, Min-Feng Yu, and Rodney S. Ruoff 23-1

24 Dendrimers — an Enabling Synthetic Science to Controlled Organic Nanostructures D.A. Tomalia, S.A. Henderson, and M.S. Diallo 24-1

25 Design and Applications of Photonic Crystals Dennis W. Prather,

Ahmed S. Sharkawy, Shouyuan Shi, and Caihua Chen 25-1

26 Progress in Nanofluidics for Cell Biology Todd Thorsen and Joshua S. Marcus 26-1

27 Carbon Nanostructures and Nanocomposites Yanhong Hu, Zushou Hu,

Clifford W. Padgett, Donald W. Brenner, and Olga A. Shenderova 27-1

28 Contributions of Molecular Modeling to Nanometer-Scale Science and Technology Donald W. Brenner, Olga A. Shenderova, J.D. Schall, D.A. Areshkin,

29 Accelerated Design Tools for Nanophotonic Devices and Applications

James P. Durbano, Ahmed S. Sharkawy, Shouyuan Shi, Fernando E. Ortiz, Petersen F. Curt, and Dennis W. Prather 29-1

30 Nanoparticles for Drug Delivery Meredith L. Hans and Anthony M. Lowman 30-1

Index I-1

Telescopes Mastery

Telescopes Mastery

Through this ebook, you are going to learn what you will need to know all about the telescopes that can provide a fun and rewarding hobby for you and your family!

Get My Free Ebook


Post a comment