Adhesive Mask Technique

The transfer of a small structure onto a substrate or a functional layer is carried out with a wide variety of different sources, ranging from 1 1 initial images to digital data sets. The various techniques applied in this context are combined in the term micro-lithography, with photolithography being a widely utilized method 1 3 27 28 . The larger proportion of microlithographic techniques apply a resist layer to create adhesion masks on the substrate or on the functional layer. The adhesion...

Strategies of Molecular Construction

Molecular construction is a branch of synthetic chemistry. It differs in two aspects from traditional synthetic approaches. In a single molecule (and not just in the crystal), both the specified binding topology and molecular geometry should be preserved. Another point is that the macromolecular units are defined by molecular weight and structure and exhibit specific binding groups that in subsequent construction steps serve as binding sites. As long as there are no autonomous nanosystems, the...

Size Reduction by Sidewall Transfer

The line width of lithographic features can be drastically reduced if side wall depositions at perpendicularly etched micro- or nanostructures are used as masks in subsequent anisotropic etching or deposition processes. This technique transfers the side-wall topology rather than the original structure to the substrate. It is therefore named sidewall transfer lithography STL . The application of STL to silicon leads to the formation of sub-10-nm structures. The process involves the deposition of...

Insight into the Nanoworld

The realization that there are small things in the world that are not visible to the naked eye extends back into human history. The development of the natural sciences created an interest in the microworld, in order to enable a better understanding of the world and the processes therein. Therefore, the development of new microscopic imaging methods represents certain milestones in the natural sciences. The microworld was approached by extending the range available for the direct visualization...

Nanoswitches Molecular Switches and Logic Elements

Switching processes can be supported by electronic, mechanical or material changes. When approaching the dimensions of single molecules, the borders between these three principles disappear. Molecular movements are linked to electronic processes, and on the other hand, electronic transfers lead to, at least temporarily, changes in the chemical structure. Nanomechanical and nanoelectronic systems with free-standing functional structures can be realized by a combination of FIB and CVD...

Intervention into the Nanoworld

The scientific understanding of the molecular world and the application of quantitative methods laid the foundations of modern chemistry. Before the quantification of chemical reactions, there was already an applied area of chemistry, for example in mining or metallurgy. However, it was established through an empirical approach. The understanding of the molecular context and its quantitative description, supplemented by the control of reactions by parameters derived from theoretical work or...